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A key benefit of microcontrollers is that they combine a microprocessor component with various inputs/outputs (I/O) that are typically needed to interface with the real world. For example, the 8051 controller sports the following features, many of which are fairly standard among microcontrollers: Central processing unit (CPU) Hardware interrupts Built-in timer or counter Programmable full-duplex serial port 32 I/O lines (four 8-bit ports) RAM and ROM/EPROM in some models
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Some microcontrollers will have greater or fewer I/O lines, and not all have hardware interrupt inputs. Some will have special-purpose I/O (see the section Of Inputs and Outputs later in this chapter) for such things as voltage comparison or analog-to-digital conversion. Just as there is no one car that s perfect for everyone, each microcontroller s design will make it more suitable for one application than for another.
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Microcontrollers and program or data storage One potential downside to microcontrollers is that they have somewhat limited memory space for programs. The typical low-cost microcontroller may have only a few thousand bytes of program storage. While this may seem terribly confining, in reality most microcontrollers are programmed
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TYPES OF COMPUTERS FOR ROBOTS
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to do a single job. This one job may not require more than a few dozen lines of program code. If a human-readable display is used, it s typically limited to a small 2-by-16 character LCD, not entire screens of color graphics and text. By using external addressing, advanced microcontrollers may handle more storage 8K or 32K are not uncommon, and a few can support well over a megabyte. Compared to what you may be used to on your personal computer, this may still not be a lot of space. Fortunately, most robot control programs don t take up nearly as much room as the average Windows application! However, keep the program storage limitations in mind when you re planning which brain to get for your robot.
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Some microcontrollers and computers for that matter stuff programs and data into one lump area and have a single data bus for fetching both program instructions and data. These are said to use the Princeton, or more commonly Von-Neumann, architecture. This is the architecture common to the IBM PC compatible and many desktop computers, but it is not as commonly found in microcontrollers. Rather, most microcontrollers use the Harvard architecture, where programs are stored in one place and data in another. Two busses are used: one for program instructions and one for data. The difference is not trivial. A microprocessor using the Harvard architecture can run faster because it can keep track of its current program location while handling all of the data needs. When using the Von Neumann architecture, the processor must constantly switch between going to a data location and a program location on the same bus. Because of the clear delineation in program and data space in the Harvard architecture, such microcontrollers have two separate memory areas: ROM (read-only memory) for program space and RAM (random access memory) for holding data used while the program runs. For this reason you will often see two data storage specifications for microcontrollers. The data storage space is typically quite small perhaps 256 bytes or less. The program storage space can be 1K and over, depending on the controller. And as mentioned earlier, some microcontrollers also support external addressing, which allows you to expand the amount of memory available to the controller.
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Erasing and starting over Since microcontrollers are meant to be programmed (and sometimes reprogrammed many times over), the ROM is often designed to be erasable using any of several techniques. One of the oldest techniques, still used, is to erase the contents of the ROM program area using ultraviolet (UV) light. The microcontroller has a clear plastic or glass window that exposes the semiconductor die within. By leaving the controller out in full sunlight for several hours or exposing it to a special UV light source made for the job, the old contents of the ROM are erased and it is made ready to accept a new program. These controllers are said to use EPROM, or erasable programmable read-only memory. A more convenient method uses electrically erasable ROM (called EEPROM), or even static RAM memory with a built-in 5- to 10-year battery. With EEPROM, an electrical signal erases the old contents of the ROM so that new bits can be written to it. EEPROM tends to be slow, and there is a limit to the number of times the ROM can be erased (something in the 100,000 range). Both battery-backed static RAM as well as the latest Flash memory are faster than EEPROM. Flash memory can only be erased and rewritten about a thousand times; battery-backed static RAM can be erased an indefinite number of times.
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