vb.net barcode reader AN OVERVIEW OF ROBOT BRAINS in Software

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432 AN OVERVIEW OF ROBOT BRAINS
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The Commodore 64 does not offer direct access to the microprocessor system bus, but it does have a unique user port that can be used for most robotic applications. The user port is primarily a parallel printer port with a twist: it allows bidirectional data transfer between the computer and the external device. Using the Basic programming language built into the Commodore 64, you can make some of the eight data line inputs and some outputs. There can always be two-way communication between the computer and your robot. The computer also has a serial port.
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Of Inputs and Outputs
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The architecture of robots requires inputs, for such things as mode setting or sensors, as well as outputs, for things like motor control or speech. The basic input and output of a computer or microcontroller is a two-state binary voltage level (off and on), usually 0 and 5 volts. For example, to place an output of a computer or microcontroller to HIGH, the voltage on that output is brought, under software control, to 5 volts. In addition to standard LOW/HIGH inputs and outputs, there are several other forms of I/O found on single-board computers and microcontrollers. The more common are listed in the following sections, organized by type. Several of these are discussed in more detail in 29.
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The most common types of serial communications include the following: I2C (inter-integrated circuit). This is a two-wire serial network protocol used by Philips to allow integrated circuits to communicate with one another. With I2C you can install two or more microcontrollers in a robot and have them communicate with one another. One I2C-equipped microcontroller may be the master, while the others are used for special tasks, such as interrogating sensors or operating the motors. Microwire. This is a serial synchronous communications protocol used in National Semiconductor products and popular for use with the PICMicro line of microcontrollers from Microchip Technologies. Most Microwire-compatible components are used for interfacing with microcontroller or microprocessor support electronics, such as memory and analog-to-digital converters. SCI (serial communications interface). This is an enhanced version of the UART, which is detailed later in this list. SPI (serial peripheral interface). This is a standard used by Motorola and others to communicate between devices. Like Microwire, SPI is most often used to interface with microcontroller or microprocessor support electronics, especially outboard EEPROM memory. Synchronous serial port. In this technology, data is transmitted one bit at a time, using two wires. One wire contains the transmitted data, and the other wire contains a clock signal. The clock serves as a timing reference for the transmitted data. Note that this is different from asynchronous serial communication (discussed next), which does not use a separate clock signal.
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UART (universal asynchronous receiver transmitter). This is used for serial communications between devices, such as your PC and the robot s computer or microcontroller. Asynchronous means that there is no separate synchronizing system for the data. Instead, the data itself is embedded with special bits (called start and stop bits) to ensure proper flow. The USART (Universal Synchronous/Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) can be used in either asynchronous or synchronous mode, thus making possible faster throughput of data.
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There are two principle types of data conversion: ADC. Analog-to-digital conversion transforms analog (linear) voltage changes to binary (digital). ADCs can be outboard, contained in a single integrated circuit, or included as part of a microcontroller. Multiple inputs on an ADC chip allow a single IC to be used with several inputs (4-, 8-, and 16-input ADCs are common). DAC. Digital-to-analog conversion transforms binary (digital) signals to analog (linear) voltage levels. DACs are not as commonly employed in robots; rather, they are commonly found on such devices as compact disc players.
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