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PULSE AND FREQUENCY MANAGEMENT
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The three major types of pulse and frequency management are the following: Input capture. This is an input to a timer that determines the frequency of an incoming digital signal. With this information, for example, a robot could differentiate between inputs, such as two different locator beacons in a room. Input capture is similar in concept to a tunable radio. PMW. Pulse width modulator is a digital output that has a square wave of varying duty cycle (e.g., the on time for the waveform is longer or shorter than the off time). PMW is often used with a simple resistor and capacitor to approximate digital-to-analog conversion, to create sound output, and to control the speed of a DC motor. Pulse accumulator. This is an automatic counter that counts the number of pulses received on an input over X period of time. The pulse accumulator is part of the architecture of the microprocessor or microcontroller and can be programmed autonomously. That is, the accumulator can be collecting data even when the rest of the microprocessor or microcontroller is busy running some other program.
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Hardware interrupts. Interrupts are special input that provides a means to get the attention of a microprocessor or microcontroller. When the interrupt is triggered, the microprocessor can temporarily suspend normal program execution and run a special subprogram. Comparator. This is an input that can compare a voltage level against a reference. The value of the input is then lower (0) or higher (1) than the reference. Comparators are most often used as simple analog-to-digital converters where HIGH and LOW are represented
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434 AN OVERVIEW OF ROBOT BRAINS
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by something other than the normal voltage levels (which can vary, depending on the kind of logic circuit used). For example, a comparator may trigger HIGH at 2.7 volts. Normally, a digital circuit will treat any voltage over about 0.5 or 1 volt as HIGH; anything else is considered LOW. Analog/mixed-signal (A/MS). These are inputs (and often outputs) that can handle analog or digital signals, under software guidance. Many microcontrollers are designed to handle both analog and digital signals on the same chip and even mix and match analog/digital on the same pins of the device. External reset. This is an input that resets the computer or microcontroller so it clears any data in RAM and restarts its program (the program stored in EEPROM or elsewhere is not erased). Switch debouncer. This cleans up the signal transition when a mechanical switch (push button, mercury, magnetic reed, etc.) opens or closes. Without a debouncer, the control electronics may see numerous signal transitions and could interpret each one as a separate switch state. With the debouncer the control electronics sees just a single transition. Input pullup. Pullup resistors (5 10K) are required for many kinds of inputs to control electronics. If the source of the input is not actively generating a signal, the input could float and therefore confuse the robot s brain. The pullup resistors, which can be built into a microcontroller and activated via software, prevent this floating from occurring.
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Connecting computers and other control circuits to the outside world Creating a robot controlled by the parallel port on an IBM PCcompatible computer Using the Basic Stamp microcontroller Using the BasicX microcontroller Using the OOPic microcontroller
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29, Interfacing with Computers and Microcontrollers 30, Computer Control via PC Parallel Port
31, Using the Basic Stamp 32, Using the BasicX Microcontroller 33, Using the OOPic Microcontroller
INTERFACING WITH COMPUTERS AND MICROCONTROLLERS
he brains of a robot don t operate in a vacuum. They need to be connected to motors to make the robot move and to sensors to make the robot perceive its surroundings. In most cases, these outside devices cannot be directly connected to the computer or microcontroller of a robot. Instead, it is usually necessary to condition these inputs so they can be adequately used by the robot s brain. In this chapter we discuss the most common and practical methods for interfacing realworld devices to computers and microcontrollers. For your convenience, some of the material presented in this chapter is replicated, in context, in other chapters of the book.
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