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DETERMINING BITS FROM A STRING PRESENTED IN BINARY FORMAT
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Binary digits expressed as strings are a convenient way to represent a nibble or a byte of information. For example, the string 0010 is a nibble that represents the number 2:
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Bit Weight Value 8 0 4 0 2 1 1 0 2
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Another example: The number 11 is expressed as a four-bit binary string as 1011 :
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Bit Weight Value 8 1 4 0 2 1 1 1 11
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There are a number of programming approaches for determining the individual bits of a binary-format string. For instance, you may want to determine which bits are 0 and which are 1 given any four-bit value from 0 to 15. You could create a lookup table that matches all 16 strings to their binary equivalents, but there are several other methods you may want to use instead, depending on the commands and statements provided in the programming language you are using. One approach is to use the Mid statement, as shown here, to parse through a string and return the value of each character. This code is Visual Basic-compatible and places the bit value (0 or 1) into a four-element array, Bit(0) to Bit (3). While this example shows only 4-bit binary strings being used, the same technique can be used with 8- or 16-bit strings:
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Sub BitArray() Dim Count As Integer, BitString As String Dim Bits(4) As Integer ' Use Bits(8) or Bits(16) as appropriate BitString = "0110" ' Sample binary-format string For Count = 0 To Len(BitString) - 1 Bits(Count) = Val(Mid(BitString, Count + 1, 1)) Next Count MsgBox Bits(3) ' Example: peek into element 3 End Sub
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The working part of this code is the For loop. It, along with the Mid statement, separates each character of the string in this case, 0110 into the four elements of the array. The Val statement converts the isolated string character into a numeric digit.
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Numeric values can be readily converted into strings once made into a string of 0s and 1s. Here s one approach:
Sub MakeBitString() Dim Temp As String, Count As Integer, X As Integer X = 9 ' Example value Temp = ""
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For Count = 0 If (X And (2 Temp = "0" Else Temp = "1" End If Next Count MsgBox Temp End Sub
To 3 ^ Count)) = 0 Then & Temp & Temp
X is the value you want to convert into a string, in this case 9. The message box displays the binary equivalent in string format (which is 1001 ).
DETERMINING BITS FROM A DECIMAL VALUE
You can determine each bit of a decimal value by using the bitwise And operator, first introduced in 7, Programming Concepts: The Fundamentals. The use of the And operator is straightforward: X Value And BitWeight
where Value is the value you want to test (0 to 15 for a four-bit number), and BitWeight is the binary digit you wish to determine. The bit weights for a value between 0 and 15 are 1, 2, 4, and 8. For example:
X = 7 And 4
This tests to see if the third bit (bit weight of 4) is 0 or 1 for the number 7. Expressed in binary form, 7 is 0111:
Bit Weight Value 8 0 4 1 2 1 1 1 7
So, for this example, X would contain a nonzero result (4 in this case). But suppose you want to test for bit weight 8:
X = 7 And 8
Now, X contains zero because the fourth bit is not part of the value 7. The following is a quick demonstration routine, suitable for use in Visual Basic and other compatible programming environments. Bits are counted 0 to 3. The message box displays the result of the And ing expression. Change X to different values; change the If expression to experiment with different bit weights:
X And 1 bit 0 X And 2 bit 1 X And 4 bit 2 X And 8 bit 3
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Sub DefBit() Dim X As Integer X = 8 If (X And 8) <> 0 Then MsgBox "Bit 3 is 1" Else MsgBox "Bit 3 is 0" End If End Sub
' Experiment with values 0 thru 15 ' Bit weight = 8
SUMMING BITS INTO A DECIMAL VALUE
You will have plenty of occasions to convert a set of binary digits into a decimal value. This can be done with simple addition and multiplication, as shown in the Visual Basiccompatible code that follows. Here, values for four bits have been specified and named D0 through D3. The message box displays the numeric equivalent of the bits you specify. For example, the bits 1001 result in 9.
Sub SumBits() Dim X As Integer Dim D0 As Integer, D1 As Integer, D2 As Integer, D3 As Integer D0 = 1 D1 = 0 D2 = 0 D3 = 1 X = (D3 * 8) + (D2 * 4) + (D1 * 2) + D0 MsgBox X End Sub
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