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A common robotics application is reading an input, such as a button, and controlling an output, such as an LED, motor, or other real-world device. Listing 32.3 shows some simple code that reads the value of a momentary push button switch connected to I/O pin 20. The switch is connected in a circuit, which is shown in Fig. 32.5, so when the switch is open, the BX-24 will register a 0 (LOW), and when it s closed the BX-24 will register a 1 (HIGH). The instantaneous value of the switch is indicated in the LED. The LED will be off when the switch is open and on when it is closed.
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LISTING 32.3
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Sub Main() Const InputPin As Byte = 20 Const LED As Byte = 26 Dim State as Byte Sub Main() Do ' Read I/O pin 20 State = GetPin(InputPin) ' Copy it to the LED Call PutPin(LED, State)
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514 USING THE BASICX MICROCONTROLLER
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+5 vdc (from BX-24 carrier board)
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To BasicX-24 I/O pin 20 10K (ground from BX-24 carrier board) FIGURE 32.5 Wire the switch so it connects to the V (pin 21, not pin 24) of the BX-24. The resistors are added for safety.
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Loop End Sub
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Now let s see how the program works. The lines,
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Const InputPin As Byte = 20 Const LED As Byte = 26 Dim State as Byte
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set the constant InputPin as I/O pin 20, and the constant LED as I/O pin 26. (Recall that one of the BX-24 s on-board LEDs the green one, by the way is connected to I/O pin 26.) Finally, the variable State is defined as type Byte:
Do ' Read I/O pin 20 State = GetPin(InputPin) ' Copy it to the LED Call PutPin(LED, State) Loop
The Do loop repeats the program over and over. The GetPin statement gets the current value of pin 20, which will either be LOW (0) or HIGH (1). The companion PutPin statement merely copies the state of the input pin to the LED. If the switch is open, the LED is off; if it s closed, the LED is on.
Additional BX-24 Examples
So far we ve just scratched the surface of the BX-24 s capabilities. But fear not: throughout this book are several real-world examples of BX-24 being using in robotic applications. For instance, in 41 you ll learn how to use the BX-24 to interface to a sophisticated accelerometer sensor. In addition, you can find several application notes for the BX-24 (and its sister microcontrollers, such as the BX-01) on the BasicX Web page (www.basicx.com).
FROM HERE
From Here
To learn more about
Stepper motors How servo motors work Different approaches for adding brains to your robot Connecting the OOPic microcontroller to sensors and other electronics
Read
19, Working with Stepper Motors 20, Working with Servo Motors 28, An Overview of Robot Brains 29, Interfacing with Computers and Microcontrollers
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USING THE OOPIC MICROCONTROLLER
While the Basic Stamp described in 31 is a favorite among robot enthusiasts, it
is not the only game in town. Hardware designers who know how to program their own microcontrollers can create a customized robot brain using state-of-the-art devices such as the PIC16CXXX family or the Atmel AVR family of eight-bit RISC-based controllers. The reality, however, is that the average robot hobbyist lacks the programming skill and development time to invest in custom microcontroller design. Recognizing the large market for PIC alternatives, a number of companies have come out with Basic Stamp work-alikes. Some are pin-for-pin equivalents, and many cost less than the Stamp or offer incremental improvements. And a few have attempted to break the Basic Stamp mold completely by offering new and unique forms of programmable microcontrollers. One fresh face in the crowd is the OOPic (pronounced OO-pick ). The OOPic uses object-oriented programming rather than the procedural PBasic programming found in the Basic Stamp. The OOPic which is an acronym for Object-Oriented Programmable Integrated Circuit is said to be the first programmable microcontroller that uses an objectoriented language. The language used by the OOPic is modeled after Microsoft s popular Visual Basic. And, no, you don t need Visual Basic on your computer to use the OOPic; the OOPic programming environment is completely stand-alone and available at no cost. The OOPic, shown in Fig. 33.1, has built-in support for 31 input/output (I/O) lines. With few exceptions, any of the lines can serve as any kind of hardware interface. What enables them to do this is what the OOPic documentation calls hardware objects, digital I/O lines
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