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Operating Modified Servos
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As designed, R/C servos are meant to travel in limited rotation, up to 90 to either side of some center point. But by modifying the internal construction of the servo, it s possible to make it turn freely in both directions and operate like a regular-geared DC motor. This modification is handy when you want to use servo motors for powering your robot across the floor. The steps for modifying servos vary, but the general process is about the same:
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1. Remove the case of the servo to expose the gear train, motor, and potentiometer. This
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is accomplished by removing the four screws on the back of the servo case and separating the top and bottom.
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528 USING THE OOPIC MICROCONTROLLER
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2. File or cut off the nub on the output gear that prevents full rotation. This typically
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requires removing one or more gears, so you should be careful not to misplace any parts. If necessary, make a drawing of the gear layout so you can replace things in their proper location! 3. Remove the potentiometer, and replace it with two 2.7K-ohm 1 percent (precision) resistors, wired as detailed in 20. This fools the servo into thinking it s always in the center position. Or relocate the potentiometer to the outside of the servo case, so you can make fine-tune adjustments of the center position. If needed, you can attach a new 5K- or 10K-ohm potentiometer to the circuit board outside the servo. 4. Reassemble the case. See 20, Working with Servo Motors, for a step-by-step tutorial on modifying commonly available servos for continuous rotation.
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OOPIC CODE FOR MODIFIED SERVOS
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Once modified, you can connect the servo to the OOPic just as you would an unmodified servo (see Fig. 33.5). Listing 33.2 shows how to use the OOPic with two modified servos acting as the drive motors for a two-wheeled robot. You can easily construct a demonstrator robot using LEGO parts, like the prototype shown in Fig. 33.6. I cemented two light-
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FIGURE 33.6 You can construct a demonstrator for the OOPic two-wheel robot using LEGO bricks. The servos are glued to small LEGO parts to aid in mounting.
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OPERATING MODIFIED SERVOS 529
weight R/C airplane wheels to control horns (these come with the servos). I also cemented a 2x8 flat LEGO plate to the side of each servo to make it easier to snap the motors to the LEGO-made frame of the robot.
LISTING 33.2.
' OOPic two-motor (servo) robot demonstrator ' Requires the use of modified R/C servos (see text) ' This program cycles the robot through various movements, ' including forward, backward, right spin, left spin, ' and turns. ' Dimension objects Dim S1 As New oServo Dim S2 As New oServo Dim CenterPos as New oByte Dim Button As New oDio1 Dim x as New oByte Dim y as New oWord ' Sub Main() CenterPos = 31 ' Set centering of servos Call Setup Do If Button = cvPressed Then ' Special program to calibrate servos S1 = CenterPos S2 = CenterPos Else ' Main program (IO line is held low) Call GoForward y = 200 ' Same as LongDelay Call Delay ' Alternative to LongDelay Call HardRight Call LongDelay Call HardLeft Call LongDelay Call SoftRightForward Call ShortDelay Call SoftLeftForward Call ShortDelay Call GoReverse Call LongDelay End If Loop End Sub ' ' Set up IO lines and servos Sub Setup() Button.Ioline = 7 Button.Direction = cvInput S1.Ioline = 30
' Set IO Line 7 for function input ' Make IO Line 7 input ' Servo 1 on IO line 30
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S1.Center = CenterPos S1.Operate = cvTrue S2.Ioline = 31 S2.Center = CenterPos S2.Operate = cvTrue S2.InvertOut = cvTrue End Sub ' ' Short delay routine Sub ShortDelay() For x = 1 To 80:Next x End Sub ' ' Long delay routine Sub LongDelay() For x = 1 To 200:Next x End Sub ' ' Selectable delay routine Sub Delay() For x = 1 To y:Next x End Sub
' ' ' ' ' '
Set center of Servo 1 Turn on Servo 1 Servo 2 on IO line 31 Set center of Servo 2 Turn on Servo 2 Reverse direction of Servo 2
' ' Motion routines (forward, back, etc.) ' "Hard" turns spin robot in place ' "Soft" turns turn robot right or left in forward ' (or backward) motion ' Sub GoForward() S1 = 0 S2 = 0 End Sub Sub GoReverse() S1 = 63 S2 = 63 End Sub Sub HardRight() S1 = 0 S2 = 63 End Sub Sub HardLeft() S1 = 63 S2 = 0 End Sub Sub SoftRightBack() S1 = CenterPos S2 = 63 End Sub Sub SoftRightForward() S1 = 0 S2 = CenterPos End Sub
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