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FIGURE 34.5 Pinout diagram for the Holtek HT-12E encoder.
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Fig. 34.6 shows the pinout diagram for the HT-12D decoder. When used with infrared communications, the chip is typically connected to a receiver-demodulator that is tuned to the 40 kHz modulation from the encoder. When the 40 kHz signal is received, the modulation is stripped off, and only the digital signal generated by the HT-12E encoder remains. This signal is applied to the input of the HT-12D encoder. The Holtek Web page provides data sheets and circuit recommendations for the HT-12D chip. There are five important outputs for the HT-12D: the four data lines (pins 10-13) and the valid data line (pin 17). The valid data line is normally low. When valid data is received, it will wink high then low again. At this point, you know the data on the data lines is good. The data lines are latching, which means their value remains until new data is received. You can use the decoder with your robot in several ways. One way is to connect each of the output lines to a relay. This allows you to directly operate the motors of your robot. As detailed in 18, Working with DC Motors, two relays could control the on/off operation of the motors; and two more relays could control the direction of the motors. 18 also shows you how to use solid-state circuitry and specialty motor driver ICs instead of relays. Another way to use the decoder is to connect the four lines to a microcontroller, such as the Basic Stamp or the BasicX-24. In this way, you can send up to 16 different commands. Each command could be interpreted as a unique function for your robot.
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If you need to control your robot over longer distances consider using radio signals instead of infrared. You can hack an old pair of walkie-talkies to serve as data transceivers, or even build your own AM or FM transmitter and receiver. But an easier (and probably more reliable) method is to use ready-made transmitter/receiver modules. Ming, Abacom, and several other companies make low-cost radio frequency modules that you can use to transmit and receive low-speed (less than 300 bits per second) digital signals. Fig. 34.7 shows transmitter/receiver boards from Ming. Attached to them are daughter boards outfitted with Holtek HT-12E and HT-12D encoder/decoder chips.
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FIGURE 34.6 Pinout diagram for the Holtek HT-12D decoder.
FIGURE 34.7 RF transmitter/receiver modules can be used to remotely control robots from a greater distance than with infrared systems.
The effective maximum range is from 20 to 100 feet, depending on whether you use an external antenna and if there are any obstructions between the transmitter and receiver. More expensive units have increased power outputs, with ranges exceeding one mile. You are not limited to using just encoder/decoders like the HT-12. You may wish to construct a remote control system using DTMF (dual-tone multifrequency) systems, the same technology found in Touch-Tone phones. Connect a DTMF encoder to the transmitter and a DTMF decoder to the receiver. Microcontrollers such as the Basic Stamp can be used as either a DTMF encoder or decoder, or you can use specialty ICs made for the job.
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Interfacing and controlling DC motors Connecting to computers and microcontrollers Using the Basic Stamp microcontroller Using the BasicX microcontroller
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18, Working with DC Motors 29, Interfacing with Computers and Microcontrollers 31, Using the Basic Stamp 32, Using the BasicX Microcontroller
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PART
SENSORS AND NAVIGATION
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ADDING THE SENSE OF TOUCH
ike the human hand, robotic grippers often need a sense of touch to determine if and when they have something in their grasp. Knowing when to close the gripper to take hold of an object is only part of the story, however. The amount of pressure exerted on the object is also important. Too little pressure and the object may slip out of grasp; too much pressure and the object may be damaged. The human hand indeed, nearly the entire body has an immense network of complex nerve endings that serve to sense touch and pressure. Touch sensors in a robot gripper are much more crude, but for most hobby applications these sensors serve their purpose: to provide nominal feedback on the presence of an object and the pressure exerted on the object. This chapter deals with the fundamental design approaches for several touchsensing systems for use on robot grippers or should the robot lack hands, elsewhere on the body of the robot. Modify these systems as necessary to match the specific gripper design you are using and the control electronics you are using to monitor the sense of touch. Note that in this chapter I make the distinction between touch and collision. Touch is a proactive event, where you specifically wish the robot to determine its environment by making physical contact. Conversely, collision is a reactive event, where (in most cases) you wish the robot to stop what it s doing when a collision is detected and back away from the condition. 36, Collision Avoidance and Detection, deals with the physical contact that results in collision.
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