barcode scanner vb.net textbox ATTACHING LEADS TO PIEZO FILM in Software

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ATTACHING LEADS TO PIEZO FILM
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Unlike piezoelectric ceramic discs, Kynar film doesn t usually come with preattached leads (although you can order samples with leads attached, but they are expensive). There
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566 ADDING THE SENSE OF TOUCH
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Kynar film substrate
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Reverse-side layer Front-side conductive layer FIGURE 35.9 A close-up look at Kynar piezo film and its electrical contacts.
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are a variety of ways to attach leads to Kynar film. Obviously, soldering the leads onto the film contact areas is out of the question. Acceptable methods include applying conductive ink or paint, self-adhesive copper-foil tape, small metal hardware, and even miniature rivets. In all instances, use small-gauge wire 22 AWG or smaller. I have had good results using 28 AWG and 30 AWG solid wire-wrapping wire. The following are the best methods:
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I Conductive ink or paint. Conductive ink, such as GC Electronics Nickel-Print paint,
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bonds thin wire leads directly to the contact points on Kynar film. Apply a small globule of paint to the contact point, and then slide the end of the wire in place. Wait several minutes for the paint to set before handling. Apply a strip of electrical tape to provide physical strength. I Self-adhesive copper-foil tape. You can use copper-foil tape designed for repairing printed circuit boards to attach wires to Kynar film. The tape uses a conductive adhesive and can be applied quickly and simply. As with conductive inks and paints, apply a strip of electrical tape to the joint to give it physical strength. I Metal hardware. Use small 2/56 or 4/40 nuts, washers, and bolts (available at hobby stores) to mechanically attach leads to the Kynar. Poke a small hole in the film, slip the bolt through, add the washer, and wrap the end of a wire around the bolt. Tighten with the nut. I Miniature rivets. Homemade jewelry often uses miniature brass or stainless steel rivets. You can obtain the rivets and the proper riveting tool from many hobby and jewelrymaking stores. To use them, pierce the film to make a small hole, wrap the end of the wire around the rivet post, and squeeze the riveting tool (you may need to use metal washers to keep the wire in place).
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Fig. 35.10 shows a simple demonstrator circuit you can build that indicates each time a piece of Kynar film is struck. Tapping the film produces a voltage output, which is visually indicated when the LED flashes. The 4066 IC is an analog switch. When a voltage is applied to pin 3, the connection between pins 1 and 2 is completed and that finishes the electrical circuit to light the LED. For a robotic application, you can connect the output to a computer or microcontroller.
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OTHER TYPES OF TOUCH SENSORS 567
1 13 R1 10M
14 2 Output
IC1 4066 Piezo film 7
FIGURE 35.10 A strike/vibration indicator using Kynar piezo film.
CONSTRUCTING A KYNAR PIEZO BEND SENSOR
You can easily create a workable touch sensor by attaching one or two small Kynar transducers to a thick piece of plastic. The finished prototype sensor is depicted in Fig. 35.11. The plastic membrane could be mounted on the front of a robot, to detect touch contact, or even in the palm of the robot s hand. Any flexing of the membrane causes a voltage change at the output of one or both Kynar film pieces.
Other Types of Touch Sensors
The human body has many kinds of touch receptors embedded within the skin. Some receptors are sensitive to physical pressure, while others are sensitive to heat. You may wish to endow your robot with some additional touchlike sensors:
I Heat sensors can detect changes in the heat of objects within grasp. Heat sensors are
available in many forms, including thermisters (resistors that change their value depending on temperature) and solid-state diodes that are specifically made to be ultrasensitive to changes in temperature. 39, Fire Detection Systems, discusses using solid-state temperature sensors. I Air pressure sensors can be used to detect physical contact. The sensor is connected to a flexible tube or bladder (like a balloon); pressure on the tube or bladder causes air to push into or out of the sensor, thereby triggering it. To be useful, the sensor should be sensitive down to about one pound per square inch, or less. I Resistive bend sensors, originally designed for use with virtual reality gloves, vary their resistance depending on the degree of bending. Mount the sensor in a loop, and you can detect the change in resistance as the loop is deformed by the pressure of contact. I Microphones and other sound transducers make effective touch sensors. You can use microphones, either standard or ultrasonic, to detect sounds that occur when objects touch. Mount the microphone element on the palm of the gripper or directly on one of the fingers or pinchers. Place a small piece of felt directly under the element, and
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