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FIGURE 36.1 The basic design of the infrared proximity sensor.
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PARTS LIST FOR INFRARED PROXIMITY SWITCH
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270-ohm resistor 10K resistor Infrared sensitive phototransistor Infrared light-emitting diode Infrared filter for phototransistor (if needed)
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All resistors have 5 or 10 percent tolerance, 1/4-watt; all capacitors have 10 percent tolerance, rated 35 volts or higher.
574 COLLISION AVOIDANCE AND DETECTION
FIGURE 36.2 How the sensor is used to test proximity to a nearby object.
Bear in mind that all objects reflect light in different ways. You ll probably want to adjust the sensitivity so the robot behaves itself best in a room with white walls. But that sensitivity may not be as great when the robot comes to a dark brown couch or the coal gray suit of your boss. The infrared phototransistor should be baffled blocked from both ambient room light as well as direct light from the LED. The positioning of the LED and phototransistor is very important, and you must take care to ensure that the two are properly aligned. You may wish to mount the LED-phototransistor pair in a small block of wood. Drill holes for the LED and phototransistor. Or, if you prefer, you can buy the detector pair already made up and installed in a similar block. The device shown in Fig. 36.3 is a TIL139 (or equivalent) from Texas Instruments. This particular component was purchased at a surplus store for about $1.
PASSIVE INFRARED DETECTION
You can use commonly available passive infrared detection systems to detect the proximity of humans and animals. These systems, popular in both indoor and outdoor security systems, work by detecting the change in infrared thermal heat patterns in front of a sensor. This sensor uses a pair of pyroelectric elements that react to changes in temperature. Instantaneous differences in the output of the two elements are detected as movement, especially movement by a heat-bearing object, such as a human. You can purchase pyroelectric sensors commonly referred to as PIR, for passive infrared new or salvage them from an existing motion detector. When salvaging from an existing detector, you can opt to unsolder the sensor itself and construct an amplification circuit around the removed sensor, or you can attempt to tap into the existing circuit of the detector to locate a suitable signal. Both methods are described next.
Using a new or removed-from-circuit detector
Using a new PIR sensor is by far the easiest approach since new PIR sensors will come with a data sheet from the manufacturer (or one will be readily available on the Internet). Some sensors such as the Eltec 422 have built-in amplification, and you can connect them directly to a microcontroller or computer. Others require extra external circuitry, including amplification and signal filtering and conditioning.
NONCONTACT NEAR-OBJECT DETECTION
FIGURE 36.3 The Texas Instruments TIL139 infrared emitter/detector sensor unit. These types of units are often available on the surplus market.
If you prefer, you can attempt to salvage a PIR sensor from a discarded motion detector. Disassemble the motion detector, and carefully unsolder the sensor from its circuit board. The sensor will likely be securely soldered to the board so as to reduce the effects of vibration. Therefore, the unsoldered sensor will have fairly short connection leads. You ll want to resolder the sensor onto another board, being careful to avoid applying excessive heat. Fig. 36.4 shows a typical three-lead PIR device. The pinouts are not industry standard, but the arrangement shown is common. Pin 1 connects to V (often 5 volts); pin 2 is the output, and pin 3 is ground. Physically, PIR sensors look a lot like old-style transistors and come in metal cans with a dark rectangular window on top (see Fig. 36.5). Often, a tab or notch will be located near pin 1. As even unamplified PIR sensors include an internal FET transistor for amplification, the power connect and output of the sensor are commonly referred to by their common FET pinout names of drain and source :
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