barcode scanner vb.net textbox I Digital (on/off) output. The output will normally be LOW and will go HIGH when in Software

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movement is detected. After a brief period (less than one second), the output will go LOW again when movement is no longer detected. With this output you do not need to connect the sensor to an analog-to-digital converter. I Analog output. The output, which will vary several volts, is the amplified output of the PIR sensor. With this output you will need to connect the sensor to an analog-to-digital converter (or an analog comparator). You may also locate a timed output, where the output will stay HIGH for a period of time up to several minutes after movement is detected. This output is not as useful. Fig. 36.8 shows the innards of a hacked motion detector. In this model, I found a suitable analog located near a diode; I then soldered a wire to that diode. If the PIR board you are using operates with a 5 vdc supply, you can connect the wire you added directly to a microprocessor or microcontroller input. If the PIR board operates from a higher voltage, use a logic level translation circuit (see Appendix D for ideas), or connect the wire you added from the PIR board to the coil terminals of a 9 or 12 volt reed relay. Use care when poking around inside the motion detector. In one unit I tried to hack I accidentally shorted out two pins of an IC, which promptly wrecked the device. Fortunately, I was still able to salvage the PIR sensor itself, so all was not lost.
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PIR sensors work by detecting electromagnetic radiation in the infrared region, especially about 5 to 15 micrometers (5000 to 15,000 nanometers). Infrared radiation in this part of the spectrum can be focused using optics for visible light. While you can use a PIR device without focusing, you ll find range and sensitivity are greatly enhanced when you use a lens. Most motion detectors use a specially designed Fresnel lens to focus infrared radiation. The lens, a piece of plastic with grooves, is made to gather more light at the top than at the bottom. With this geometry, when the sensor is mounted high and pointing down the motion detector is more sensitive to movement farther away than right underneath. If you ve gotten your PIR sensor by hacking a motion detector, you can use the same Fresnel lens for your robot. You may wish to invert the lens from its usual orientation (because your robot will likely be near the ground, looking up). Or, you can substitute an ordinary positive diopter lens and mount it in front of the PIR sensor. 37, Robotic Eyes, has more information on the use and proper mounting of lenses. Note that, oddly enough, plastic lenses are probably a better choice than glass lenses. Several kinds of glass actively absorb infrared radiation, as do optical coatings applied to finer quality lenses. You may need to experiment with the lens material you use or else obtain a specialty lens (either regular or Fresnel) designed for use with PIR devices.
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FIGURE 36.8 A hacked PIR detector, showing the DC-operated circuit board.
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Like light, sound has a tendency to travel in straight lines and bounce off any object in its path. You can use sound waves for many of the same things that light can be used for, including detecting objects. High-frequency sound beyond human hearing (ultrasonic) can be used to detect both proximity to objects as well as distance. In 38 you ll learn how to use an ultrasonic system to measure distance. The project in this section details a simple ultrasonic transmitter and receiver that you can use to detect proximity to nearby objects. In operation, ultrasonic sound is transmitted from a transducer, reflected by a nearby object, then received by another transducer. The advantage of using sound is that it is not sensitive to objects of different color and light-reflective properties. Keep in mind, however, that some materials reflect sound better than others and that some even absorb sound completely. In the long run, however, proximity detection with sound is a more foolproof approach. This system is adaptable for use with either a single transmitter/receiver pair or multiple pairs. Ultrasonic transmitter and receiver transducers are common finds in the surplus market and even new cost under $5 each (depending on make and model). Ultrasonic transducers are available from a number of retail and surplus outlets; see Appendix B, Sources, for a more complete list of electronics suppliers. You can also mount a single pair of transducers on a scanning platform (also called a turret or carousel), as shown in Fig. 36.9. The scanner can be operated using a standard RC servo (see 20, Working with Servo Motors, for more information).
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