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FIGURE 37.3 A one-cell robotic eye, using a CdS photocell as a light sensor.
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FIGURE 37.4 How to couple the photocell to a comparator.
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TABLE 37.1 PARTS LIST FOR SINGLE-CELL ROBOTIC EYE
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LM339 Quad Comparator IC 3.3K resistor 10K potentiometer 10K resistor Photocell
EYES FROM STATIC CMOS MEMORY 605
just switches HIGH. Use a flashlight to focus a beam directly onto the photocell, and watch the output of the comparator change state. Another application is to use the photocell as a light detector period. Set the pot all the way over so the comparator changes state just after light is applied to the surface of the cell.
Multiple-Cell Light Sensors
The human eye has millions of tiny light receptacles. Combined, these receptacles allow us to discern shapes, to actually see rather than just detect light levels. A crude but surprisingly useful implementation of human sight is given in Fig. 37.5 (refer to the parts list in Table 37.2). Here, eight photocells are connected to a 16-channel multiplexed analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The ADC, which has room for another eight cells, takes the analog voltages from the outputs of each photocell and one by one converts them into digital data. The eight-bit binary number presented at the output of the ADC represents any of 256 different light levels. The converter is hooked up in such a way that the outputs of the photocells are converted sequentially, in a row and column pattern, following the suggested mounting scheme shown in Figs. 37.6 and 37.7. A computer hooked up to the A/D converter records the digital value of each cell and creates an image matrix, which can be used to discern crude shapes. Each photocell is connected in series with a resistor, as with the one-cell eye presented earlier. Initially, use 2.2K resistors, but feel free to substitute higher or lower values to increase or decrease sensitivity. The photocells should be identical, and for the best results, they should be brand-new prime components. Before placing the cells in the circuit, test each one with a volt-ohm meter and a carefully controlled light source. Check the resistance of the photocell in complete darkness, then again with a light shining at it a specific distance away. Reject cells that do not fall within a 5 to 10 percent pass range. See 29, Interfacing with Computers and Microcontrollers, for more information on using ADCs and connecting them to computer ports and microprocessors. Note the short pulse that appears at pin 13, the End-of-Conversion (EOC) Output. This pin signals that the data at the output lines is valid. If you are using a computer or microcontroller, you can connect this pin to an interrupt line (if available). Using an interrupt line lets your computer do other things while it waits for the ADC to signal the end of a conversion. See 42, Tips, Tricks, and Tidbits for the Robot Experimenter, for basic information on using the hardware interrupt port on computers and microcontrollers. You can get by without using the EOC pin the circuit is easier to implement without it but you must set up a timing delay circuit or routine to do so. Simply wait long enough for the conversion to take place a maximum of about 115 s (microseconds) then read the data. Even with a delay of 125 s (to allow for settling, etc.), it takes no more than about 200 milliseconds to read the entire matrix of cells.
Eyes from Static CMOS Memory
Long before solid-state (CCD and CMOS) camcorders and digital cameras became common, robot experimenters used to play around with static CMOS RAM (random access memory), using modified chips as multicell eyes for their creations. Most all semiconductors are sensitive to light, even the memory matrix inside memory chips. By using static
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