visual basic barcode scanner input USING LENSES in Software

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USING LENSES
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Lenses are refractive media constructed so that light bends in a particular way. The two most important factors in selecting a lens for a given application are lens focal length and lens diameter:
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I Lens focal length. Simply stated, the focal length of a lens is the distance between the
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lens and the spot where rays are brought to a common point. (Actually, this is true of positive lenses only; negative lenses behave in an almost opposite way, as we will discuss later.) I Lens diameter. The diameter of the lens determines its light-gathering capability. The larger the lens is, the more light it collects. There are six major types of lenses, shown in Fig. 37.10. Such combinations as planoconvex and bi-concave refer to each side of the lens. A plano-convex lens is flat on one side and curved outward on the other. A bi-concave lens curves inward on both sides. Negative and positive refer to the focal point of the lens, as determined by its design. Lenses form two kinds of images: real and virtual. A real image is one that is focused to a point in front of the lens, such as the image of the sun focused to a small disc on a piece of paper. A virtual image is one that doesn t come to a discrete focus. You see a virtual image behind the lens, as when you are using a lens as a magnifying glass. Positive lenses, which magnify the size of an object, create both real and virtual images. Their focal
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612 ROBOTIC EYES
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Double convex
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Plano convex
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Concave meniscus
Plano concave
Double concave
FIGURE 37.10 Lenses come in a variety of forms. Plano-convex and double-convex are among the most common.
length is stated as a positive number, such as 1 or 2.5. Negative lenses, which reduce the size of an object, create only virtual images. Their focal length is stated as a negative number. Lenses are common finds in surplus stores, and you may not have precise control over what you get. For robotics vision applications, plano-convex or double-convex lenses of about 0.5 inch to 1.25 inch in diameter are ideal. Focal length should be fairly short 1 to 3 inches. When you are buying an assortment of lenses the diameter and focal length of each lens is usually provided, but if they are not, use a tape to measure the diameter of the lens and its focal length (see Fig. 37.11). Use any point source except the sun focusing the light of the sun onto a small point can cause a fire! (As if you ve never done this ) To use the lens, position it over the light cell(s) using any convenient mounting technique. One approach is to glue the lens to a plastic or wood lens board. Or, if the lens is the correct diameter, you can mount it inside a short length of plastic PVC pipe; attach the other end of the pipe to the light cells. Be sure you block out stray light. You can use black construction paper to create light baffles. This will make the robot only see the light shining through the lens. If desired, attach a filter over the light cells. You can use a dab of glue to secure the filter in place. Using Fig. 37.6 as a guide, you can create a kind of two-eyed robot by placing a lens over each group of four photocells. The lenses are mounted in front of the photocells, which are secured to a circuit board in two groups of four. For one project I used miniature photocells in TO-8 packages. These measure about 1/8 inch in diameter, and while they can be difficult to work with (avoid soldering them to your circuit board!) their small size is ideal for constructing compact multicell vision systems. Each of the eight cells is connected to a separate input of an eight-input analog-to-digital converter (ADC) chip. By using an eight-input ADC, the values of all eight cells can be readily sensed without the need for separate ADC chips and extra wiring.
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