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Fortunately, there are some less complicated methods you can try as you experiment with robot vision. Here s one you might want to tackle, and it uses only about $30 worth of parts (minus the video camera). You need a simple penlight laser, a red filter, and a small piece of diffraction grating (available from Edmund Scientific Company and other sources for optical components; see Appendix B, Sources, for additional information). The system works on a principle similar to the three-beam focusing scheme used in CD players. In a CD player, laser light is broken into sub-beams by the use of a diffraction grating. A single, strong beam appears in the center, flanked by weaker beams on both sides, as shown in Fig. 37.12. The three-beam CD focusing system uses the two closest side beams, ignoring all the others. The beam spacing increases as the distance from the lens to the surface of the disc increases. Similarly, the beam spacing decreases as the lens-to-CD distance decreases. A multicelled photodetector in the CD players integrates the light reflected by these beams and determines whether the lens should be moved closer to, or farther away, from the disc. For history buffs, the fundamental basis of this focusing technique is over a hundred years old and was pioneered by French physicist Jean Foucault.
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FIGURE 37.12 Most CD players use a diffraction grating to break up the single laser beam into several sub-beams. The sub-beams are used to focus and track the optical system.
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CD players use a diffraction grating in which lines are scribed into a piece of plastic in only one plane. This causes the laser beam to break up into several beams along the same plane. With a diffraction grating that has lines scribed both vertically and horizontally, the laser beam is split up into multiple beams that form a grid when projected on a flat surface (see Figs. 37.13 and 37.14). The beams move closer together as the distance from the laser and surface is decreased; the beams move further apart as the distance from the laser and surface is increased. As you can guess, when the beams are projected onto a three-dimensional scene, they form a kind of topographical map in which they appear closer or farther apart depending on the distance of the object from the laser. The red filter placed in front of the camera lens filters out most of the light except for the red beams from the penlight laser. For best results, use a high-quality optical bandpass filter that accepts only the precise wavelength of the diode laser, typically 635 or 680 nanometers. Check the specifications of the laser you are using so you can get the correct filter. Meredith Instruments and Midwest Laser Products, among other sources, provide a variety of penlight lasers and optical filters you can use (see Appendix B). The main benefit of the laser diffraction system is this: it s easier to write software that measures the distance between pixels than it is to write software that attempts to recognize shapes and patterns. For many machine vision applications, it is not as important for the robot to recognize the actual shape of an object as it is to navigate around or manipulate that shape. As an example, a robot may see a chair in its path, but there is little practical need for it to recognize the chair as an early-eighteenth-century Queen Anne-style twoseater settee. All it really needs to know is that something is there, and by moving left or right that object can be avoided.
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Sight provides a fast and efficient way for us to determine our surroundings. The eyes take in a wide field, and the brain processes what the eyes see to compose a picture of the immediate environment. Taking a cue from the special senses evolved by some animals, however, visual eyesight is not the only way to see. For instance, bats use high-pitched
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