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TABLE 38.2
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DPDT fast-acting relay; contacts rated 2 amps or more 1N4003 diodes
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WALL FOLLOWING 625
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off again. You may have to experiment with the settings of the set point pots as you try out the system. Depending on which motors you use and the switching speed of the relays, you may find your robot waddling its way down the track, overcorrecting for its errors every time. You can help minimize this by using faster-acting relays. Another approach is to vary the gap between the two sensors. By making it wide, the robot won t be turning back and forth as much to correct for small errors. I have also found that you can minimize this so-called overshoot effect by carefully adjusting the set-point pots. You ll hardly ever see a railroad track with a turn tighter than about 8 . There is good reason for this. If the turn is made any tighter, the train cars can t stay on the track, and the whole thing derails. There is a similar limitation in line-tracing robots. The lines cannot be tighter than about 10 to 15 , depending on the robot s turning radius, or the thing can t act fast enough when it crosses over the line. The robot will skip the line and go off course. The actual turn radius will depend entirely on the robot. If you need your robot to turn very tight, small corners, build it small. If your robot has a brain, whether it is a computer or central microprocessor, you can use it instead of the direct connection to the relays for motor control. The output of the comparators, when used with a 5 volt supply, is compatible with computer and microprocessor circuitry, as long as you follow the interface guidelines provided in 29. The two sensors require only two bits of an eight-bit port.
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Robots that can follow walls are similar to those that can trace a line. Like the line, the wall is used to provide the robot with navigation orientation. One benefit of wall-following robots is that you can use them without having to paint any lines or lay down tape. Depending on the robot s design, the machine can even maneuver around small obstacles (doorstops, door frame molding, radiator pipes, etc.).
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Wall following can be accomplished with any of four methods:
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I Contact. The robot uses a mechanical switch, or a stiff wire that is connected to a
switch, to sense contact with the wall, as shown in Fig. 38.7a. This is by far the simplest method, but the switch is prone to mechanical damage over time. I Noncontact, active sensor. The robot uses active proximity sensors, such as infrared or ultrasonic, to determine its distance from the wall. No physical contact with the wall is needed. In a typical noncontact system, two sensors are used to judge when the robot is parallel to the wall (see Fig. 38.7b). I Noncontact, passive sensor. The robot uses passive sensors, such as linear Hall effect switches, to judge distance from a specially prepared wall (Fig. 38.7c). In the case of Hall effect switches, you could outfit the baseboard or wall with an electrical wire through which a low-voltage alternating current is fed. When the robot is in the proximity of the switches the sensors will pick up the induced magnetic field provided by
626 NAVIGATING THROUGH SPACE
the alternating current. Or, if the baseboard is metal the Hall effect sensor (when rigged with a small magnet on its opposite side) could detect proximity to a wall. I Soft-contact. The robot uses mechanical means to detect contact with the wall, but the contact is softened by using pliable materials. For example, you can use a lightweight foam wheel as a wall roller, as shown in Fig. 38.7d. The benefit of soft contact is that mechanical failure is reduced or eliminated because the contact with the wall is made through an elastic or pliable medium. In all cases, upon encountering a wall the robot goes into a controlled program phase to follow the wall in order to get to its destination. In a simple contact system, the robot may back up a short moment after touching the wall, then swing in a long arc toward the wall again. This process is repeated, and the net effect is that the robot follows the wall. With the other methods, the preferred approach is for the robot to maintain proper distance from the wall. Only when proximity to the wall is lost does the robot go into a find wall mode. This entails arcing the robot toward the anticipated direction of the wall. When contact is made, the robot alters course slightly and starts a new arc. A typical pattern of movement is shown in Fig. 38.8.
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