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Combination units that include both a smoke and gas alarm are also available. You should determine if the all-in-one design will be useful for you. In some combination smoke-gas alarm units, there is no simple way to determine which has been detected. Ideally, you ll want your robot to determine the nature of the alarm, either smoke or gas (or perhaps both).
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In a fire, smoke and flames are most often encountered before heat, which isn t felt until the fire is going strong. But what about before the fire gets started in the first place, such as when a kerosene heater is inadvertently left on or an iron has been tipped over and is melting the nylon clothes underneath If your robot is on wheels (or legs) and is wandering through the house, perhaps it ll be in the right place at the right time and sense these irregular situations. A fire is brewing, and before the house fills with smoke or flames the air gets a little warm. Equipped with a heat sensor, the robot can actually seek out warmer air, and if the air temperature gets too high it can sound an initial alarm. Realistically, heat sensors provide the least protection against a fire. But heat sensors are easy to build, and, besides, when the robot isn t sniffing out fires it can be wandering through the house giving it an energy check or reporting on the outside temperature or you get the idea. Fig. 39.4 shows a basic but workable circuit centered around an LM355 temperature sensor. This device is relatively easy to find and costs under $1.50. The output of the device, when wired as shown, is a linear voltage. The voltage increases 10 mV for every rise in temperature of 1 Kelvin (K). Degrees Kelvin uses the same scale as degrees Centigrade (C), except that the zero point is absolute zero about 273 C. One degree Centigrade equals 1 Kelvin; only the start points differ. You can use this to your advantage because it lets you easily convert degrees Kelvin into degrees Centigrade. Actually, since your robot will be deciding when hot is hot, and doesn t care what temperature scale is used, conversion really isn t necessary. You can test the circuit by connecting a volt-ohm meter to the ground and output terminals of the circuit. At room temperature, the output should be about 2.98 volts. You can
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ADJ LM335 R2 10K Output = 10mV/ K
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FIGURE 39.4 The basic wiring diagram for the LM355 temperature sensor.
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PARTS LIST FOR THE BASIC TEMPERATURE TRANSDUCER.
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R1 R2 D1
4.7K resistor, 1 percent tolerance 10K 10-turn precision potentiometer LM335 temperature sensor diode
All capacitors have 10 percent tolerance unless noted; all resistors 1/4-watt.
calculate the temperature if you get another reading by subtracting the voltage by 273 (ignore the decimal point but make sure there are two digits to the right of it, even if they are zeros). What s left is the temperature in degrees Centigrade. For example, if the reading is 3.10 volts, the temperature is 62 C (310 273 62). By the way, that s pretty hot! Time to turn on the air conditioner. You can calibrate the circuit, if needed, by using an accurate bulb thermometer as a reference and adjusting R2 for the proper voltage. How do you know the proper voltage If you know the temperature, you can determine what the output voltage should be by adding the temperature (in degrees C) to 273. If the temperature is 20 C, then the output voltage should be 2.93 volts. For more accuracy, float some ice in a glass of water for 15 20 minutes and stick the sensor in it (keep the leads of the testing apparatus dry). Wait 5 to 10 minutes for the sensor to settle and read the voltage. It should be exactly 2.73 volts. The load presented at the outputs of the sensor circuit can throw off the reading. The schematic in Fig. 39.5 provides a buffer circuit so the load does not interfere with the output of the 355 temperature sensor. Note the use of the decoupling capacitors as recommended in the manufacturer s application notes. These aren t essential, but they are a good idea.
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