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FIGURE 40.4 A warbler siren made from two 555 timer ICs.
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666 SOUND OUTPUT AND INPUT
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TABLE 40.2
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IC1,IC2 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 C1 C2
555 Timer IC 10K resistor 1 megohm resistor 10K resistor 1K resistor 4.7K resistor 0.22 F ceramic capacitor 0.1 F ceramic capacitor
All resistors have 5 or 10 percent tolerance, 1/4-watt; all capacitors have 10 percent tolerance, rated 35 volts or higher.
Sound Control
Unless you have all of the sound-making circuits in your robot hooked up to separate amplifiers and speakers (not a good idea), you ll need a way to select between the sounds. The circuit in Fig. 40.5 uses a 4051 CMOS analog switch and lets you choose from among eight different analog signal sources. You select input by providing a threebit binary word to the select lines. You can load the selection via computer or set it manually with a switch. A binary-coded-decimal (BCD) thumbwheel switch is a good choice, or you can use a four-bank DIP switch. Table 40.3 shows the truth table for selecting any of the eight inputs. You can route just about any of your sound projects through this chip, just as long as the outlet level doesn t exceed a few milliwatts. Do not pass amplified sound through the chip. Besides in all likelihood destroying the chip, it ll cause excessive cross talk between the channels. It s also important that each input signal not have a voltage swing that exceeds the supply voltage to the 4051.
Audio Amplifiers
Fig. 40.6 shows a rather straightforward 0.5-watt sound amplifier that uses the LM386 integrated amp. The sound output is minimal, but the chip is easy to get, cheap, and can be wired up quickly. It s perfect for experimenting with sound projects. The amplifier as shown has a gain of approximately 20, using minimal parts. You can increase the gain to about 200 by making a few wiring changes, as shown in Fig. 40.7. Either amplifier will drive a small (two- or three-inch) eight-ohm speaker. Refer to the parts lists in Tables 40.4 and 40.5 for these circuits.
AUDIO AMPLIFIERS 667
+5 16 13 0 14 1 15 2 13 3 Audio Inputs 1 5 2 4 4 5 6 7 7 -5 GND 8 INH 6 IC1 4051 A 11 Input select
B 10 C 9
Output
FIGURE 40.5 How to use the 4051 CMOS 8-input analog switch to control the output of the various sound-making circuits in your robot. You can choose the sound source you want routed to the output amplifier by selecting its input with the Input Select lines (they are binary weighted: A 1, V 2, C 4). For best results, the audio inputs should not already be amplified.
TABLE 40.3
4051 TRUTH TABLE.
C 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
A 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
Selected Output 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Pin 13 14 15 12 1 5 2 4
668 SOUND OUTPUT AND INPUT
Input 6 R3 10K 3 + 8 1 IC1 LM386 2 4 R1 10 SPKR 1 8 5 7 C2 250 F + C1 0.047
FIGURE 40.6 A simple gain-of-50 integrated amplifier, based on the popular LM386 audio amplifier IC.
TABLE 40.4 PARTS LIST FOR GAIN-200 AUDIO AMPLIFIER.
IC1 R1 R2 C1 C2 SPKR1
LM386 Audio Amplifier IC 10-ohm resistor 10K potentiometer 0.047 F ceramic capacitor 250 F electrolytic capacitor 8-ohm miniature speaker
All resistors have 5 or 10 percent tolerance, 1/4-watt; all capacitors have 10 percent tolerance, rated 35 volts or higher.
Speech Recognition
Robots that listen to your voice commands and obey Don t laugh; the technology is not only available, it s relatively inexpensive. Several companies, such as Sensory Inc. and Images Company, offer full-featured speech recognition systems for under $100. Both require you to train the system to recognize your voice patterns. Once trained, you simply repeat the command, and the system sets one or more of its outputs accordingly. The Voice Direct, from Sensory Inc., is relatively easy to set up and use. The unit consists of a small double-sided circuit board that is ready to be connected to a microphone, speaker (for auditory confirmation), battery, and either relays or a microcontroller. The Voice Direct board recognizes up to 15 words or phrases and is said to have a 99 percent or better recognition accuracy. Phrases of up to 3.2 seconds can be stored, so you can tell you robot to come here or stop, don t do that! Fig. 40.8 shows Voice Direct module; the product comes with complete circuit and connection diagrams.
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