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Passive Sound Input Sensors
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Next to sight, the most important human sense is hearing. And compared to sight, sound detection is far easier to implement in robots. Simple ears you can build in less than an hour let your robot listen to the world around it.
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Sound detection allows your robot creation to respond to your commands, whether they take the form of a series of tones, an ultrasonic whistle, or a hand clap. It can also listen for the telltale sounds of intruders or search out the sounds in the room to look for and follow its master. The remainder of this chapter presents several ways to detect sound. Once detected, the sound can trigger a motor to motivate, a light to go lit, a buzzer to buzz, or a computer to compute.
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Obviously, your robot needs a microphone (or mike) to pick up the sounds around it. The most sensitive type of microphone is the electret condenser, which is used in most higherquality hi-fi mikes. The trouble with electret condenser elements, unlike crystal element mikes, is that they need electricity to operate. Supplying electricity to the microphone element really isn t a problem, however, because the voltage level is low under 4 or 5 volts. Most all electret condenser microphone elements come with a built-in field effect transistor (FET) amplifier stage. As a result, the sound is amplified before it is passed on to the main amplifier. Electret condenser elements are available from a number of sources, including Radio Shack, for under $3 or $4. You should buy the best one you can. A cheap microphone isn t sensitive enough. The placement of the microphone is important. You should mount the mike element at a location on the robot where vibration from motors is minimal. Otherwise, the robot will do nothing but listen to itself. Depending on the application, such as listening for intruders, you might never be able to place the microphone far enough away from sound sources or make your robot quiet enough. You ll have to program the machine to stop, then listen.
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Use the circuit in Fig. 40.9 as an amplifier for the microphone (refer to parts list in Table 40.6). The circuit is designed around the common LM741 op amp, which is wired to operate from a single-ended power supply. Potentiometer R1 lets you adjust the gain of the op amp, and hence the sensitivity of the circuit to sound. After experimenting with the circuit and adjusting R1 for best sensitivity, you can substitute the potentiometer for a fixed-value resistor. Remove R1 from the circuit and check its resistance with a volt-ohm meter. Use the closest standard value of resistor. By adding the optional circuit in Fig. 40.10, you can choose up to four gain levels via computer control. The resistors, R1 and R2 (you decide on their value based on the gain you wish), are connected to the inverting input of the op amp and the inputs of a 4066 CMOS 1-of-4 analog switch. Select the resistor value by placing a HIGH bit on the switch you want to activate. The manufacturer s specification sheets for this chip recommend that only one switch be closed at a time.
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The 741 op amp is sensitive to sound frequencies in a very wide band and can pick up everything that the microphone has to send it. You may wish to listen for sounds that occur only in a specific frequency range. You can easily add a 567 tone decoder IC to the amplifier input stage to look for these specific sounds.
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674 SOUND OUTPUT AND INPUT
+5VDC
RED MIC1 R2 6.8K C1 0.47 2 R1 500K R4 1K
IC1 741
7 6 4
Output C2 0.47-2.2 R5 1K b e c Q1 2N2222
R3 6.8K
FIGURE 40.9 Sound detector amplifier. Adjust R1 to increase or decrease the sensitivity, or replace the potentiometer with the circuit that appears in Figure 40.10.
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