how to connect barcode scanner to visual basic 2010 UNDERSTANDING DATA TYPES 85 in Software

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UNDERSTANDING DATA TYPES 85
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Repeated statements
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Loop restarts execution to repeat program code
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FIGURE 7.3 A program loop repeats one or more commands.
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OUTPUTTING DATA
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In the realm of robot control programs, data output is most often used to turn motors on and off, to activate a sonar chirp for sensing distance, and to blink a light-emitting diode on and off to communicate with you in a crude form of Morse code. Data output provides a means for the robot to either interact with its environment or interact with you, the Robot Master (RM for short). On robots equipped with liquid crystal display panels, data output can provide a way for the machine to display its current condition. Simpler data output is possible with a single light-emitting diode (LED). If the LED is on, for example, it might mean your robot has run into trouble and needs your help.
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Understanding Data Types
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At their most basic level programs manipulate data. Data comes in many forms, including a funny-looking guy with platinum-colored skin on Star Trek: The Next Generation. Actually, the kind of data we re interested in is strictly numbers of one type or another. Those numbers might represent a value like 1 or 127, the numeric equivalent of a text character (65 is A using the ASCII standard), or binary 00010001, which could mean turn on both motors on your robot. In a program, data types can take the following common forms:
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I Literals. A literal is, literally, a value hard-coded into the program. For example, in
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the statement MyVariable
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10, the 10 is literal data.
I Variables. We ve already seen what a variable is: it s a place where data can be stored
and referenced elsewhere in the program. It s the MyVariable in the statement MyVariable 10. I Constants. Depending on the design of the programming language, a constant can be just another name for a literal or it can be a special kind of variable that once set is never meant to be changed. I Expressions. The result of a math or logical expression can return a data type. For example, the expression 2 2 returns the value 4. No matter what form the data type is in, the programming language expects to see its data follow predefined types. This is necessary so the data can be properly stored in memory. The most common data type is the 8-bit integer, so-called because the value stores an integer (a whole number) using eight bits. With eight bits, the program can work with a
86 PROGRAMMING CONCEPTS: THE FUNDAMENTALS
number from 0 to 255 (or 128 to basic data types are as follows:
I I I I
127, depending on how it uses the eighth bit). The
8-bit integer, or byte (can hold a number, a True/False value, or a string value) 16-bit integer, or word 32-bit integer, or long or double word (dword) 32-bit floating point, or single ( floating point means a number with a decimal point)
A few programming languages can manipulate smaller pieces of data, including single bits at a time or a nibble (four bits). In many cases, the language provides for either or both signed and unsigned values. The first bit (called the most significant bit, or MSB) is either 0 or 1, which means a positive or negative value. With a 16-bit unsigned integer, for example, the program can store values from 0 to 65535. With a 16-bit signed integer, the program can store values from 32768 to 32767. In each case, the number of bits required to store the data is defined in the data type. Programming languages like Microsoft Visual Basic insulate you from needing to know the number of bits required to hold any particular kind of data. But as most robot programming languages are designed to be more streamlined (read: simpler), you often need to know how many bits are required to store a piece of information.
A Look at Common Programming Statements
In this section we discuss seven of the most common statements you ll encounter in most any programming language. The examples shown are those for the Basic language, but the fundamentals are the same for other languages.
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