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Volts per 1.4 cell
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Ni-Cad Lead-acid, gel cell
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1.2 0 1 3 4 Discharge (in hours) 5 6
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FIGURE 15.2 Representative discharge curves for several common battery types.
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battery is then calculated taking the difference between the discharge rate and the reserve power and multiplying it by the number of hours under test. What all this means is that it s an unusual battery that provides the stated amps in the one-hour period. The battery is much more likely to fail after 30 or 45 minutes of heavyduty use and won t be able to supply the specified current for more than about 15 to 20 minutes. Discharging at or above the amp-hour rating may actually cause damage to the battery. This is especially true of Ni-Cad cells. The lesson to be learned is that you should always choose a battery that has an amp-hour rating 20 to 40 percent more than what you need to power your robot. Figuring the desired capacity is nearly impossible until the entire robot is designed and built (or unless you are very good at computing current consumption). The best advice is to design the robot with the largest battery you think practical. If you find that the battery is way too large for the application, you can always swap it out for a smaller one. It s not so easy to do the reverse. Note that some components in your robot may draw excessive current when they are first switched on, then settle down to a more reasonable level. Motors are a good example of this. A motor that draws one amp under load may actually require several amps at start up. The period is very brief, on the order of 100 to 200 milliseconds. No matter; the battery should be able to accommodate the surge. This means that the 20 to 40 percent overhead in using the larger battery is a necessity, not just a design suggestion. A rough comparison of the discharge curve at various discharge times is shown in Fig. 15.3.
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Most (but not all) batteries are recharged slowly, over a 12- to 24-hour period. The battery can t take on too much current without breaking down and destroying itself, so the current from the battery charger must be kept at a safe level. A good rule of thumb to follow when recharging any battery is to limit the recharging level to one tenth the amp-hour rating of the cell. For a 5 AH battery, then, a safe recharge level is 500 milliamps. Limiting current is extremely important when recharging Ni-Cads, which can be permanently damaged if charged too quickly. Lead-acid and gel-cell batteries can take an occasional fast-charge a quickie at 25 to 50 percent of the rated amphour capacity of the battery. However, repeated quick-charging will warp the plates and disturb the electrolyte action in the battery, and is not recommended. The recharge period, the number of hours the battery is recharged, varies depending on the type of cell. A recharge interval of 2 to 10 times the discharge rate is recommended. Fig. 15-4 shows a typical discharge/recharge curve for a lead-acid or gel-cell battery. Most manufacturers specify the recharge time for their batteries. If no recharge time is specified, assume a three- or four-to-one discharge/recharge ratio and place the battery under charge for that period of time. Continue experimenting until you find an optimum recharge interval.
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Each battery type generates different nominal (normal, average) output voltages. The traditional rating for zinc, alkaline, and similar nonrechargeable batteries is 1.5 volts per cell. The actual voltage delivered by the cell can vary from a high of around 1.7 volts (fresh and fully charged) to around 1.2 or 1.3 volts ( dead ). Other battery types, most notably
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