vb.net barcode scanner programming ALL ABOUT BATTERIES AND ROBOT POWER SUPPLIES in Software

Printer DataMatrix in Software ALL ABOUT BATTERIES AND ROBOT POWER SUPPLIES

196 ALL ABOUT BATTERIES AND ROBOT POWER SUPPLIES
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1AH battery at: 1.6
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FIGURE 15.3 Discharge curves of a 1-AH battery at three-, five-, and seven-hour rates.
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Discharge 1.2 FIGURE 15.4 The charge/discharge curves of a typical rechargeable battery. Note that the charge time is longer than the discharge time.
Ni-Cads, provide different nominal cell voltages. Specifically, Ni-Cad and nickel metal hydride batteries provide 1.2 volts per cell, and lead-acid batteries provide 2.0 volts per cell. To achieve higher voltages, you can link cells internally or externally (see the next section, Increasing Battery Ratings, for more information). By internally linking together six 1.5-volt cells, for example, the battery will output 9 volts. Nominal cell voltage is important when you are designing the battery power supplies for your robots. If you are using 1.5-volt cells, a four-cell battery pack will nominally deliver 6 volts, an eight-cell pack will nominally deliver 12 volts, and so forth. Conversely, if you are using 1.2-volt cells, a four-cell battery pack will nominally deliver 4.8 volts and an eight-cell pack will nominally deliver 9.6 volts. The lower voltage will have an effect on various robotic subsystems. For example, many microcontrollers used with robots (see Part 5 of this book) are made to operate at 5 volts and will reset restart their programming at 4.5 volts. A battery pack that delivers only 4.8 volts will likely cause problems with the microcontroller. You either need to add more cells or change the battery type to a kind that provides a higher per-cell voltage.
BATTERY RECHARGING
INTERNAL RESISTANCE
The internal resistance of a battery determines the maximum rate at which power can be drawn from the cells. A lower internal resistance means more power can be drawn out in less time. Lead-acid and nickel metal hydride cells are good examples of batteries that have a very low internal resistance. When comparing batteries, you don t really need to know the actual internal resistance of the cells you use. Rather, you ll be more concerned with the discharge curve and the maximum amp-hour ratings of the battery. Still, knowing that the battery s internal resistance dictates the discharge curve and capacity of the battery will help you to design power packs for your robots.
Increasing the Battery Ratings
You can obtain higher voltages and current by connecting several cells together, as shown in Fig. 15.5. There are two basic approaches:
I To increase voltage, connect the batteries in series. The resultant voltage is the sum of
the voltage outputs of all the cells combined.
I To increase current, connect the batteries in parallel. The resultant current is the sum of
the current capacities of all the cells combined. Take note that when you connect cells together not all cells may be discharged or recharged at the same rate. This is particularly true if you combine two half-used batteries with two new ones. The new ones will do the lion s share of the work and won t last as long. Therefore, you should always replace or recharge all the cells at once. Similarly, if one or more of the cells in a battery pack is permanently damaged and can t deliver or take on a charge like the others, you should replace it.
Battery Recharging
Most lead-acid and gel-cell batteries can be recharged using a 200- to 800-mA battery charger. The charger can even be a DC adapter for a video game or other electronics. Standard Ni-Cad batteries can t withstand recharge rates exceeding 50 to 100 mA, and if you use a charger that supplies too much current you will destroy the cell. Use only a battery charger designed for Ni-Cads. High-capacity Ni-Cad batteries can be charged at higher rates, and there are rechargers designed specially for them. Nickel metal hydride, rechargeable alkalines, and rechargeable lithium-ion batteries all require special rechargers. Avoid substituting the wrong charger for the battery type you are using, or you run the risk of damaging the charger and/or the battery (and perhaps causing a fire). You can rejuvenate zinc batteries by placing them in a recharger for a few hours. The process is not true recharging since the battery is not restored to its original power or
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