vb.net barcode scanner programming MULTIPLE VOLTAGE REQUIREMENTS in Software

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MULTIPLE VOLTAGE REQUIREMENTS
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Some advanced robot designs require several voltages if they are to operate properly. The drive motors may require 12 volts, at perhaps two to four amps, whereas the electronics require 5, and perhaps even 5 volts. Multiple voltages can be handled in several ways. The easiest and most straightforward is to use a different set of batteries for each main
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To motors, regulators, etc.
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Fuse
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Battery To robot subsytems FIGURE 15.6 How to install a fuse in line with the battery and the robot electronics or motor.
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202 ALL ABOUT BATTERIES AND ROBOT POWER SUPPLIES
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subsection. The motors operate off one set of large lead-acid or gel-cell batteries; the electronics are driven by smaller capacity Ni-Cads. This approach is actually desirable when the motors used in the robot draw a lot of current. Motors naturally distribute a lot of electrical noise throughout the power lines, noise that electronic circuitry is extremely sensitive to. The electrical isolation that is provided when you use different batteries nearly eliminates problems caused by noise (the remainder of the noise problems occur when the motor commutators arc, causing RF interference). In addition, when the motors are first started the excessive current draw from the motors may zap all the juice from the electronics. This sag can cause failed or erratic behavior, and it could cause your robot to lose control. The other approach to handling multiple voltages is to use one main battery source and step it down (sometimes up) so it can be used with the various components in the system. This is called DC-DC conversion, and you can accomplish it by using circuits of your own design or by purchasing specialty integrated circuit chips that make the job easier. One 12-volt battery can be regulated (see Voltage Regulation later in this chapter) to just about any voltage under 12 volts. The battery can directly drive the 12-volt motors and, with proper regulation, supply the 5-volt power to the circuit boards. Connecting the batteries judiciously can also yield multiple voltage outputs. By connecting two 6-volt batteries in series, as shown in Fig. 15.7, you get 12 volts, 6 volts, and 6 volts. This system isn t nearly as foolproof as it seems, however. More than likely, the two batteries will not be discharged at the same rate. This causes extra current to be drawn from one to the other, and the batteries may not last as long as they might otherwise. If all of the subsystems in your robot use the same batteries, be sure to add sufficient filtering capacitors across the positive and negative power rails. The capacitors help soak up excessive current spikes and noise, which are most often contributed by motors. Place the capacitors as near to the batteries and the noise source as possible. Exact values are not critical, but they should be over 100 F even better is 1000 to 3000 F. Be certain the capacitors you use are rated at the proper voltage (25 to 35 volts is fine). Using an underrated capacitor will burn it out and possibly cause a short circuit. You should place smaller value capacitors, such as 0.1 F, across the positive and negative power rails wherever power enters or exits a circuit board. As a general rule, you
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+6vdc or -6vdc
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6-volt battery
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6-volt battery
FIGURE 15.7 Various voltage tap-offs from two 6-volt batteries. This is not an ideal approach (the batteries will discharge at different rates), but it works in a pinch.
VOLTAGE REGULATION
should add these decoupling capacitors beside clocked logic ICs, particularly flip-flops and counters. A few linear ICs, such as the 555 timer, need decoupling capacitors, or the noise they generate through the power lines can ripple through to other circuits. If many ICs are on the board, you can usually get by with adding one 0.1 F decoupling capacitor for every three or four chips.
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