vb.net barcode scanner programming ALL ABOUT BATTERIES AND ROBOT POWER SUPPLIES in Software

Make Data Matrix in Software ALL ABOUT BATTERIES AND ROBOT POWER SUPPLIES

210 ALL ABOUT BATTERIES AND ROBOT POWER SUPPLIES
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FIGURE 15.14 Battery monitor using 4.3-volt zener diode. This circuit is designed to be used with a 12-volt battery.
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TABLE 15.5
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PARTS LIST FOR 4.3-VOLT ZENER BATTERY MONITOR.
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R1 R2,R3 D1 Q1 LED1
10K potentiometer 1K resistor 4.3-volt zener diode (1/4-watt) 2N3904 NPN transistor Light-emitting diode
All resistors have 5 or 10 percent tolerance, 1/4-watt.
Build a Robot Testing Power Supply
Using a battery while testing or experimenting with new robot designs is both inconvenient and counter productive. Just when you get a circuit perfected, the battery goes dead and must be recharged. A stand-alone power supply, which operates off of 117 VAC house current, can supply your robot designs with regulated DC power, without requiring you to install, replace, or recharge batteries. You can buy a ready-made power supply (they are common in the surplus market) or make your own. One easy-to-use and inexpensive power supply is the DC wall transformer, or wallwart. Wall-warts convert AC power into low-voltage DC, usually 6 18 volts (note: some wall-warts only reduce the voltage, but do not convert it from AC to DC don t use these!). Wall-warts have no voltage regulation, and most cannot provide more than a few hundred milliamps of current. Use them only when you don t need regulation (or when it is provided elsewhere in your circuit) and for nondemanding current applications.
BUILD A ROBOT TESTING POWER SUPPLY 211
+5vdc
5 R1 10K 4 5.1 v zener diode IC1 339
3 2 12
R2 10K Output
FIGURE 15.15 A zener diode and 339 comparator can be used to construct a fairly accurate 5-volt battery monitor.
TABLE 15.6
PARTS LIST FOR 339 COMPARATOR BATTERY MONITOR.
IC1 R1,R2 D1
339 comparator IC 10K resistor 5.1-volt zener diode (1/4- or 1/2-watt)
All resistors have 5 or 10 percent tolerance, 1/4-watt.
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Vin -- VOLTS 8 9 10
10 9 8 7 6 Vout 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Vin -- VOLTS 8 9 10
Vout
Vref
Vref
FIGURE 15.16 The output of a 339 comparator has a sharp cutoff as the voltage goes above or below the setpoint. The voltages shown here are representative only.
212 ALL ABOUT BATTERIES AND ROBOT POWER SUPPLIES
Begin
Read Battery Circuit
Time Out (Wait XX Minutes to Next Read of Monitor Circuit)
No Is Battery Low
Activate Floor Tape Sensors; Look for Tape
Tape Found
Follow to End
Nest Charger at End
No Back up
Make Connection and Charge
FIGURE 15.17 Software can be used to command the robot to return to its battery recharger nest should the battery exceed a certain low point.
BUILD A ROBOT TESTING POWER SUPPLY 213
BUILDING THE POWER SUPPLY
Refer to Fig. 15.18 for the schematic of the 5-volt regulated power supply (refer to the parts list in Table 15.7). For safety reasons, you must enclose the power supply in a plastic or metal chassis (plastic is better because there is less chance of a short circuit). Use a perforated board to secure the components, and solder them together using 18- or 16-gauge insulated wire. Alternatively, you can make your own circuit board using a home etching kit. Before constructing the board, collect all the parts and design the board to fit the specific parts you have. There is little size standardization when it comes to power supply components and large value electrolytic capacitors, so presizing is a must.
HOW THE CIRCUIT WORKS
Here s how the circuit works. The incoming AC is routed to the AC terminals of the transformer. The hot side of the AC is connected through a 2-amp slow-blow fuse and a single-pole, single-throw (SPST) toggle switch. With the switch in the off (open) position, the transformer receives no power so the supply is off. The 117 VAC is stepped down to the secondary voltage of the transformer (12 to 18 volts, depending on the exact voltage of the transformer you use). The transformer specified here is rated at 2 amps, which is sufficient for the task at hand. Remember that the power supply is limited to delivering the capacity of the transformer (and later the voltage regulator), no more. A bridge rectifier, BR1 (shown schematically in the box in Fig. 15.18), converts the AC to DC. You can also construct the rectifier using discrete diodes, and connect them as shown within the dotted box. When using the bridge rectifier, be sure to connect the leads to the proper terminals. The two terminals marked with a ~ connect to the transformer. The and terminals are the output and must connect as shown in the schematic in Fig. 15.18. Use a 5-volt, 1-amp regulator a 7805 to maintain the voltage output at a steady 5 volts.
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