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FIGURE 15-12 Momentary on button added to the BS2 eight-LED circuit.
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THE BASIC STAMP 2 MICROCONTROLLER
TABLE 15-7 BS2 LEDs 10k Button Programmer Misc.
BS2 Button Experimentation Circuit Parts List Parallax BASIC Stamp 2 5 2 mm Red LEDs 10k Resistor Momentary On Button with wires soldered on to interface with the breadboard BS2 Programmer/Communications Interface Breadboard, 3x AA Alkaline Battery Clip, Breadboard Wires, Power Switch
the need to tear down and build up a new circuit as you are learning about the BS2. You may be able to find a momentary on button that can be plugged directly into the breadboard, but chances are you will have to solder some wires to a switch and push them into the breadboard to add the switch to the circuit. The BS2 is built from CMOS technology. As discussed earlier in the book, it does not have its own internal voltage or current source so you must make sure that the input pins are driven either high or low. In this circuit, the 10k resistor pulls up the input pin until the button is pressed and the pin is connected to ground (pulled down). The 10k resistor limits the amount of current that passes through the momentary on switch to ground to about 50 A. A pull-up circuit, such as this, should always be used with BS2 inputs to ensure that the voltage always transitions from high to low and a very small amount of current passes between them. To test the circuit, the following program will turn on the LED at P0 any time the input at P15 is low (which is the pulled up momentary on button). Notice that the value at P15 cannot be passed directly to P0 when the button is pressed, the input is low, but to turn on the LED, the output must be high. The XOR (^ operator) with 1 will invert the signal from P15 so it can be used with P0.
' Button Demonstration 1 - Control LED on P0 by Button on P15 '{$STAMP BS2} '{$PBASIC 2.5} ' Mainline DIR0 = 1 DO OUT0 = IN15 ^ 1 LOOP
' P0 is an output ' Toggle Button Input ' Repeat
When you pushed down the button, you may have noticed that the LED flickered on and off. This was due to button bounce, dirty contacts, or your finger getting tired. To try and show this action more clearly, the second button demonstration turns off all eight LEDs
15.5 SAMPLE INTERFACE APPLICATIONS
and then starts to turn them on (by shifting bits up) when the button is pressed. If the button is lifted, then the program stops until the button is pressed again.
' Button Demonstration 2 - Button Bounce Demonstration '{$STAMP BS2} '{$PBASIC 2.5} ' Mainline DIRL = $FF ' LEDs on P0-P7 OUTL = 0 DO DO WHILE (IN15 = 1) ' Wait for Button Press LOOP OUTL = 0 ' Turn off LEDs DO WHILE (IN15 = 0) ' Shift Up while Pressed OUTL = (OUTL << 1) + 1 PAUSE 100 LOOP LOOP ' Repeat
When you ran this program, you probably saw the LEDs cycle up, but occasionally restart or even just flicker to one on. The reasons for this were listed previously and something that will have to be compensated for in your robot control program. Later in the book, you will be shown how to process this information and figure out exactly what is happening but for now just try to work at understanding how to process simple button inputs.
15.5.4 LCD INTERFACE
The most effective type of display that you can add to your robot is the liquid crystal display, best known by its acronym LCD. The LCD display allows you to output data in an arbitrary format in alphanumeric or even graphical format to help you understand what is going on within the robot. LCDs have the reputation for being difficult to work with, but there are products such as the Hitachi 44780 controlled LCDs discussed in this section that are quite easy to add and program to a microcontroller. The 44780 is a chip that is a bridge between a microcontroller and the LCD hardware and was originally manufactured by Hitachi though now it is made by a wide range of chip manufacturers. It contains the four- or eight-bit interface listed in Table 15-8. In eight-bit mode, all eight bits, D0 through D7, interface to a microcontroller, while in four-bit mode, only the upper four bits (D4 through D7) are used. The other six pins consist of three control and clocking pins, power, and a display contrast voltage. The RS pin selects between passing characters or commands between the LCD and the microcontroller, and the direction of the data is selected by the RW pin. Normally data are sent from the microcontroller to the LCD and not read, so this line is held low. To indicate that the data on the LCD s pins are correct, the E clock is pulsed from low to high and back to low again. If the LCD is used in four-bit mode, first the four most significant data bits are passed to the LCD, followed by the least significant four data bits.
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