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Creation Quick Response Code in Software Copyright 2006, 2001, 1987 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

Copyright 2006, 2001, 1987 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.
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BATTERIES AND ROBOT POWER SUPPLIES
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17.1 Remember: Safety First!
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Anytime you are working with electricity, remember to make sure that you understand how much energy is available in the different power supplies and make sure that there is adequate protection even a AA alkaline radio battery, when shorted out, can produce enough heat to melt the clips that it is in and char the battery s plastic coating, potentially causing a fire. Be extra careful when wiring power supply circuits that convert household 120 V AC to low DC voltages and triple-check your work. Never operate the supply when the top of the cabinet is off, unless you are testing it. Even then, stay away from the incoming AC. Touching the incoming AC voltage can cause a serious shock, and depending on the circumstances it could kill you. Be extra certain that no wires touch the chassis or front panel. Use an all-plastic enclosure whenever possible. Do not operate any power supply if it has become wet, has been dropped, or shows signs of visible damage. Fix any problems before powering it up. Understand the fuse requirements for the power supply and robot and do not assemble the supply without a fuse.
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17.2 Increasing Robot Performance
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It is not widely known or understood, but of the various parameters that are used to choose a battery for an application (such as voltage output, amp-hour rating, recharge rate, etc.) the most important one for robot applications is very rarely considered the battery s internal resistance. Often people describing themselves as experts will tell you that you should buy the cheapest carbon zinc batteries you can find instead of expensive alkaline or rechargeable batteries because the ampere hour (AH) rating of the cheaper batteries is similar to that of the much more expensive battery. This is true, but the inexpensive batteries have a very high internal resistance, which will shorten their lives in your robot and make it difficult for your robot to work reliably. To understand the effect the internal resistance has in a robot, take a look at Fig. 17-1, which shows three different robot battery power circuits. When you think of electrical circuits, you tend to think of the idealized case (the left circuit diagram) in which there is no resistance in wiring. This is a reasonable approximation when low power and current power sources are being considered. In a robot application, which draws a great deal of current, the internal resistances of the batteries (shown in the middle circuit diagram) have a voltage drop across them which becomes larger as more current is drawn from the batteries. The combined internal resistances can be consolidated into a single resistance as shown in the circuit diagram to the right, the effective circuit. This voltage drop is actually a power loss to the robot. The batteries internal resistances create heat, which is power lost in its most basic form. To make matters worse, most batteries lose the ability to output electrical energy as their internal temperature rises, so this internal resistance not only robs the robot of power, but also reduces the total amount of power available from the batteries. To summarize, the lower the internal resistance of the battery, the more power is avail-
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17.3 COMBINING BATTERIES
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Idealized Circuit
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Voltage Drop
Controller
Motor
Controller
Motor
Controller
Motor
Robot Circuit Consisting of a Multi-Cell Battery, Controller, and Motor
Cells in Series with Internal Resistances
Multi-Cell Battery Resistance Combined to Show Voltage Drop External to Controller and Motor(s)
Multi-Cell Battery Model Expanded with Internal Resistors
FIGURE 17-1 The effect of the internal resistance of a robot s battery power source on the output voltage available to the robot s motors and electronics.
able to the robot. While you may want to use cheap carbon zinc batteries for testing your robot s electronics, when it comes to moving you should use batteries with the lowest available internal resistance as documented in the battery s data sheet on the manufacturer s web page.
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