vb.net barcode reader source code Combining Batteries in Software

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17.3 Combining Batteries
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You can obtain higher voltages and current by connecting several cells together, as shown in Fig. 17-2. There are two basic approaches:
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To increase voltage, connect the batteries in series. The resultant voltage is the sum of the voltage outputs of all the cells combined. To increase current, connect the batteries in parallel. The resultant current is the sum of the current capacities of all the cells combined.
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Take note that when you connect cells together not all cells may be discharged or recharged at the same rate. This is particularly true if you combine two half-used batteries with two new ones. The new ones will do the lion s share of the work and won t last as long. Therefore, you should always replace or recharge all the cells at once. Similarly, if one or more of the cells in a battery pack are permanently damaged and can t deliver or take on a charge like the others, you should replace them.
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BATTERIES AND ROBOT POWER SUPPLIES
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A. Parallel Connection 2X Current
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FIGURE 17-2 Wiring batteries to increase ratings. a. Parallel connection increases current; b. Series connection increases voltage.
B. Series Connection 2X Voltage
17.4 Types of Batteries
There are seven main types of batteries, which come in a variety of shapes, sizes, and configurations.
17.4.1 ZINC
Zinc batteries are the staple of the battery industry and are often referred to simply as flashlight cells. The chemical makeup of zinc batteries takes two forms: carbon zinc and zinc chloride. Carbon zinc, or regular-duty, batteries die out the quickest and are unsuited to robotic applications. Zinc chloride, or heavy-duty, batteries provide a little more power than regular carbon zinc cells and last 25 to 50 percent longer. Despite the added energy, zinc chloride batteries are also unsuitable for most robotics applications. Both carbon zinc and zinc chloride batteries can be rejuvenated a few times after being drained. Zinc batteries are available in all the standard flashlight (D, C, A, AA, and AAA) and lantern battery sizes.
17.4 TYPES OF BATTERIES
17.4.2 ALKALINE
Alkaline cells use a special alkaline manganese dioxide formula that lasts up to 800 percent longer than carbon zinc batteries. The actual increase in life expectancy ranges from about 300 to 800 percent, depending on the application. In robotics, where the batteries are driving motors, solenoids, and electronics, the average increase is a reasonable 500 percent or five times the life of carbon zinc batteries. Alkaline cells, which come in all the standard sizes (as well as 6- and 12-V lantern cells), cost about twice as much as zinc batteries. But the increase in power and service life is worth the cost. Unlike zinc batteries, however, ordinary alkaline batteries cannot be rejuvenated by recharging without risking fire (though some people try it just the same). During recharging, alkaline batteries generate considerable internal heat, which can cause them to explode or catch fire. So when these batteries are dead, just throw them away. Rechargeable alkaline cells have been on the market for a number of years now. These provide many of the benefits of ordinary alkaline cells but with the added advantage of being rechargeable. A special low-current recharger is required (don t use the recharger on another battery type or you may damage the recharger or the batteries). While rechargeable alkalines cost more than ordinary alkaline cells, over time your savings from reusing the batteries can be considerable.
17.4.3 HIGH-TECH ALKALINE
You ve probably seen the advertisements for the very high tech alkaline cells ones that offer two or three times the life of regular alkaline batteries. While being significantly more expensive than regular alkaline batteries, they do indeed provide 200 to 300 percent of the life of basic alkaline cells. The dramatic improvement in battery life is possible by decreasing the internal resistance of the batteries and improving their ability to respond to changing current demands (such as a motor turning on and off) without damaging the internal structure of the battery. The much higher price of the high-tech alkaline cells will often preclude their regular use in a robot. They are good to keep in your back pocket for those times when you need a bit more juice in a sumo-competition or the robot is having problems that more power (or less weight) would solve.
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