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Lithium and rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are popular in laptop computers. They are best used at a steady discharge rate and tend to be expensive. Lithium batteries of various
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types provide the highest energy density of most any other commercially available battery, and they retain their charge for months, even years. Like other rechargeable battery types, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries require their own special recharging circuitry, or overheating and even fire could result.
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17.4.7 LEAD-ACID
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The battery in your car is a lead-acid battery. It is made up of not much more than lead plates crammed in a container that s filled with an acid-based electrolyte. These brutes pack a wallop and have an admirable between-charge life. When the battery goes dead, recharge it, just like a NiCad. Not all lead-acid batteries are as big as the one in your car. You can also get new or surplus 6-V lead-acid batteries that are about the size of a small radio. The battery is sealed, so the acid doesn t spill out (most automotive batteries are now sealed as well). The sealing isn t complete though: during charging, gases develop inside the battery and are vented out through very small pores. Without proper venting, the battery would be ruined after discharging and recharging. These batteries are often referred to as sealed lead-acid, or SLA. Lead-acid batteries typically come in self-contained packs. Six-volt packs are the most common, but you can also get 12- and 24-V packs. The packs are actually made by combining several smaller cells. The cells are wired together to provide the rated voltage of the entire pack. Each cell typically provides 2.0 V, so three cells are required to make a 6-V pack. You can, if you wish, take the pack apart, unsolder the cells, and use them separately. Although lead-acid batteries are powerful, they are heavy. A single 6-V pack can weigh 4 or 5 lb (2 to 2.5 kg). Lead-acid batteries are often used as a backup or emergency power
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FIGURE 17-3 Sealed lead-acid batteries.
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supply for computers, lights, and telephone equipment. The cells are commonly available on the surplus market, and although used they still have many more years of productive life. The retail price of new lead-acid cells is about $25 for a 6-V pack. Surplus prices are 50 to 80 percent lower. Motorcycle batteries make good power cells for robots. They are easy to get, compact, and relatively lightweight. The batteries come in various amp-hour capacities, so you can choose the best one for your application. New motorcycle batteries are somewhat pricey, although you should be able to find surplus or used batteries for just a few dollars. You can also use car batteries, as long as your robot is large and sturdy enough to support it. Gelled electrolyte batteries (commonly called gel-cell, after a popular trade name) use a special gelled electrolyte and are the most common form of SLA batteries. They are rechargeable and provide high current for a reasonable time, which makes them perfect for robots. Fig. 17-3 shows typical sealed lead-acid batteries.
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17.5 Battery Ratings
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Batteries carry all sorts of ratings and specifications. Traditionally, the two most important specifications are per-cell voltage and amp-hour current.
17.5.1 VOLTAGE
The voltage rating of a battery is fairly straightforward. If the cell is rated for 1.5 V, when new, it puts out a bit more. Over time it will drop down to the rate value, give or take. That give or take is more important than you may think because few batteries actually deliver their rated voltage throughout their life span. Most rechargeable batteries are recharged 20 to 30 percent higher than their specified rating. For example, the 12-V battery in your car, a type of lead-acid battery, is charged to about 13.8 V. Standard zinc and alkaline flashlight batteries are rated at 1.5 V per cell. Assuming you have a well-made battery in the first place, the voltage may actually be 1.65 V when the cell is fresh, and drop to 1.3 V or less, at which point the battery is considered dead. The circuit or motor you are powering with the battery must be able to operate sufficiently throughout this range. Most batteries are considered dead when their power level reaches 80 percent of their rated voltage. That is, if the cell is rated at 6 V, it s considered dead when it puts out only 4.8 V. Some equipment may still function at levels below 80 percent, but the efficiency of the battery is greatly diminished. Below the 80 percent mark, the battery no longer provides the rated current (discussed later), and if it is the rechargeable type, the cell is likely to be damaged and unable to take a new charge. When experimenting with your robot systems, keep a volt-ohm meter handy and periodically test the output of the batteries. Perform the test while the battery is in use. The test results may be erroneous if you do not test the battery under load. It is often helpful to know the battery s condition when the robot is in use. Using a DMM to periodically test the robot s power plant is inconvenient. But you can build a number of
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