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17.9.2 MULTIPLE VOLTAGE REQUIREMENTS
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Some advanced robot designs require several voltages if they are to operate properly. The drive motors may require 12 V, at perhaps 2 to 4 A, whereas the electronics require +5, and perhaps even 5 V. Multiple voltages can be handled in several ways. The easiest and most straightforward is to use a different set of batteries for each main subsection. The motors operate off one set of large lead-acid or gel-cell batteries; the electronics are driven by smaller capacity NiMH batteries. This approach is actually preferable when the motors used in the robot draw a lot of current. Motors naturally distribute a lot of electrical noise throughout the power lines, noise that electronic circuitry is extremely sensitive to. The electrical isolation that is provided when you use different batteries virtually eliminates problems caused by noise (the remainder of the noise problems occur when the motor commutators arc, causing RF interference). In addition, when the motors are first started, the excessive current draw from the motors may zap all the juice from the electronics. This sag can cause failed or erratic behavior, and it could cause your robot to lose control. The other approach to handling multiple voltages is to use one main battery source and a voltage regulator to step it up or down so it can be used with the various components in
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17.9 POWER DISTRIBUTION
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the system. This is called DC-DC conversion and will be discussed later in this chapter. You can accomplish DC-DC conversion by using circuits of your own design or by purchasing specialty integrated circuit chips that make the job easier. One battery s output voltage can be changed to a wide range of voltages from zero to about 15 V. Normally a single battery will directly drive the motors and, with proper conversion, supply the +5-V power to the circuit boards. Connecting the batteries judiciously can also yield multiple voltage outputs. By connecting two 6-V batteries in series, as shown in Fig. 17-7, you get +12 V, +6 V, and 6 V. This system isn t nearly as foolproof as it seems, however. More than likely, the two batteries will not be discharged at the same rate. This causes extra current to be drawn from one to the other, and the batteries may not last as long as they might otherwise. If all of the subsystems in your robot use the same batteries, be sure to add sufficient filtering capacitors across the positive and negative power rails. The capacitors help soak up excessive current spikes and noise, which are most often contributed by motors. Place the capacitors as near to the batteries and the noise source as possible. A good rule of thumb is 100 F of capacitance for every 250 mA of current drawn by a motor during normal operation. Be certain the capacitors you use are overrated above the voltage by 50 to 75 percent (e.g., use a 7.5-V rated capacitor for a 5-V circuit; 25 to 35 V is fine). An underrated capacitor will probably burn out or possibly develop a short circuit, which can cause a fire. You should place smaller value capacitors, such as 0.01 to 0.1 F, across the positive and negative power rails wherever power enters or exits a circuit board. As a general rule, you should add one of these decoupling capacitors at the power input pins of all ICs. Linear ICs, such as the 555 timer, need decoupling capacitors, or the noise they generate through the power lines can ripple through to other circuits.
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17.9.3 SEPARATE BATTERY SUPPLIES
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Most hobby robots now contain computer-based control electronics of some type. The computer requires a specific voltage (called regulation, discussed in the next section), and
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