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FIGURE 17-17 Power plug and socket combination being shown (a) separate and (b) plug inserted. When the plug is inserted, the wiper connection is broken and the negative voltage connection to the internal battery can be automatically disconnected, eliminating its ability to power the robot.
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17.13 FROM HERE
FIGURE 17-18 A used laptop power supply can be purchased for just a few dollars and provides several amps of current.
Instead of the small wall wart, you should be able to find an old laptop power supply, like the one shown in Fig. 17-18, which provides 12 V at up to 5 A at a surplus store for $5 or so. These connectors are in the power plug format but are much larger than the ones typically used for CD players and basic home electronics. Some laptop power supplies provide multiple voltage outputs that may be useful in your robot. Finally, the DC output from the power supplies cannot be used to charge batteries. NiMH, NiCad, and other battery technologies require a PWM input and often have testing algorithms to determine when they are fully (and not over) charged. Damage or fire could result if a straight DC voltage is passed to them, so only use chargers that are designed for the type of battery you are using.
17.13 From Here
To learn more about . . . Understanding motor current ratings Other power systems (e.g., hydraulic) Read 19, Choosing the Right Motor for the Job 26, Reaching Out with Arms
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CHAPTER
PRINCIPLES OF ROBOT LOCOMOTION
s you graduate to building larger mobile robots, you should consider the physical properties of your creations, including their size, weight, and mode of transport. A robot that is too heavy for its frame, or a locomotion mechanism that doesn t provide sufficient stability, will greatly hinder the usefulness of your mechanical invention. In this chapter you ll find a collection of assorted tips, suggestions, and caveats for designing the locomotion systems for your robots. Because the locomotion system is intimately related to the frame of the robot, we ll cover frames a little bit as well, including their weight and weight distribution. Of course, there s more to the art and science of robot locomotion than we can possibly cover here, but what follows will serve as a good introduction.
18.1 First Things First: Weight
Most hobbyist robots weigh under 20 lbs, and a high percentage of those weigh under 10 lbs. Weight is one of the most important factors affecting the mobility of a robot. A heavy robot requires larger motors and higher capacity batteries both of which add even more pounds to the machine. At some point, the robot becomes too heavy to even move. On the other hand, robots designed for heavy-duty work often need some girth and weight. Your own design may call for a robot that needs to weigh a particular amount in
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PRINCIPLES OF ROBOT LOCOMOTION
order for it to do the work you have envisioned. The parts of a robot that contribute the most to its weight are the following, in (typical) descending order:
Batteries Drive motors Frame
A 12-V battery pack can weigh 1 lb; larger-capacity, sealed lead-acid batteries can weigh 5 to 8 lbs. Heavier-duty motors will be needed to move that battery ballast. But bigger and stronger motors weigh more because they must be made of metal and use heavier-duty bushings. And they cost more. Suddenly, your little robot is not so little anymore; it has become overweight and expensive.
18.2 Tips for Reducing Weight
If you find that your robot is becoming too heavy, consider putting it on a diet, starting with the batteries. Nickel-cadmium and nickel metal hydride batteries weigh less, volt for volt, than their lead-acid counterparts. While nickel-cadmium and nickel metal hydride batteries may not deliver the amp-hour capacity that a large, sealed lead-acid battery will, your robot will weigh less and therefore may not require the same stringent battery ratings as you had originally thought. When looking at reducing the weight of your robot or modifying it in any way, remember to try to come up with changes that result in additional benefits. For example, if you were to change your batteries to a lighter set, you will discover that you do not need as powerful a motor. Less powerful motors weigh less than the originally specified motors, further decreasing the weight of the motor. This decrease in the weight of the motor could result in the need for smaller and lighter batteries, which allows you to look at using even smaller and lighter batteries, smaller motors, smaller structure, etcetera. This process can repeat multiple times and it isn t unusual to see a situation where a 10 percent decrease in battery weight results in a 50 percent reduction in overall robot weight. The repeating positive response to a single change is known as a supereffect, and you should remember that the reverse is also true: a 10 percent increase in weight in a robot s components could result in a 50 percent increase in weight in the final robot. If your robot must use a lead-acid battery, consider carefully whether you truly need the capacity of the battery or batteries you have chosen. You may be able to install a smaller battery with a lower amp-hour rating. The battery will weigh less, but, understandably, it will need to be recharged more often. An in-use time of 60 to 120 minutes is reasonable (that is, the robot s batteries must be recharged after an hour or two of continual use). If you require longer operational times but still need to keep the weight down, consider a replaceable battery system. Mount the battery where it can be easily removed. When the charge on the battery goes down, take it out and replace it with a fully charged one. Place the previously used battery in the charger. The good news is that smaller, lower capacity batteries tend to be significantly less expensive than their larger cousins, so you can probably buy two or three smaller batteries for the price of a single big one.
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