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Thanks to the ready availability of smart microcontrollers, along with the low cost of R/C (radio-controlled) servos, legged automatons are becoming a popular alternative for robot builders. Robots with legs require more precise construction than the average wheeled robot. They also tend to be more expensive. Even a basic six-legged walking robot requires a minimum of two or three servos, with some six- and eight-leg designs requiring 12 or more motors. At about $12 per servo (more for higher-quality ones), the cost can add up quickly! Obviously, the first design decision is the number of legs. Robots with one leg (hoppers) or two legs are the most difficult to build because of balance issues, and will not be addressed here. Robots with four and six legs are more common. Six legs offer a static balance that ensures the robot won t easily fall over. At any one time, a minimum of three legs touch the ground, forming a stable tripod. In a four-legged robot, either the robot must move one leg at a time keeping the other three on the ground for stability or else employ some kind of dynamic balance when only two of its legs are on the ground at any given time. Dynamic balance is often accomplished by repositioning the robot s center of gravity, typically by moving a weight (such as the robot s head or tail, if it has one). This momentarily redistributes the center of balance to prevent the robot from falling over. The algorithms and mechanisms for achieving dynamic balance are not trivial. Four-legged robots are difficult to steer, unless you add additional degrees of freedom for each leg or articulate the body of the beast like those weird segmented city buses you occasionally see. The movement of the legs with respect to the robot s body is often neglected in the design of legged robots. The typical six-legged (hexapod) robot uses six identical legs. Yet the crawling insect a hexapod robot attempts to mimic is designed with legs of different lengths and proportions the legs are made to do different things. The back legs of an insect, for example, are often longer and are positioned near the back for pushing (this is particularly true of insects that burrow through dirt). The front legs may be similarly
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18.9 MOTOR DRIVES
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constructed for digging, carrying food, fighting, and walking. You may wish to replicate this design, or something similar, for your own robots. Watch some documentaries on insects and study how they walk and how their legs are articulated. Remember that the cockroach has been around for over a million years and represents a very advanced form of biological engineering!
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18.9 Motor Drives
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Next to the batteries, the drive motors are probably the heaviest component in your robot. You ll want to carefully consider where the drive motor(s) are located and how the weight is distributed throughout the base. One of the most popular mobile robot designs uses two identical motors to spin two wheels on opposite sides of the base (the differentially driven robot). These wheels provide forward and backward locomotion, as shown in Fig. 18-4, as well as left and right steering. If you stop the left motor, the robot turns to the left. By reversing the motors relative to one another, the robot turns by spinning on its wheel axis (turns in place). You use this forwardreverse movement to make hard or sharp right and left turns.
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18.9.1 CENTERLINE DRIVE MOTOR MOUNT
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You can place the wheels and hence the motors just about anywhere along the length of the platform. If they are placed in the middle, as shown in Fig. 18-5, you should add two casters to either end of the platform to provide stability. Since the motors are in the center of the platform, the weight is more evenly distributed across it. You can place the battery or batteries above the centerline of the wheel axis, which will maintain the even distribution. A benefit of centerline mounting is that the robot has no front or back, at least as far as the drive system is concerned. Therefore, you can create a kind of multidirectional robot that can move forward and backward with the same ease. Of course, this approach also complicates the sensor arrangement of your robot. Instead of having bump switches only in the front of your robot, you ll need to add additional ones in the back in case the robot is reversing direction when it strikes an object.
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