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19.3 Servo Motors
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A special subset of continuous motors is the servo motor, which in typical cases combines a continuous DC motor with a feedback loop to ensure the accurate positioning of the motor. A common form of servo motor is the kind used in model and hobby radiocontrolled (R/C) cars and planes. R/C servos are in plentiful supply, and their cost is reasonable (about $10 to $12 for basic units). Though R/C servos are continuous DC motors at heart, we will devote a separate chapter is devoted just to them. See 21, Working with Servo Motors, for more information on using R/C servo motors not only to drive your robot creations across the floor but to operate robot legs, arms, hands, heads, and just about any other appendage.
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19.4 Other Motor Types
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There are many other types of motors, some of which may be useful in your hobby robot, some of which will not. DC, stepper, and servo motors are the most common, but you may also see references to some of the following:
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CHOOSING THE RIGHT MOTOR
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Brushless DC. This is a kind of DC motor that has no brushes. It is controlled electronically. Brushless DC motors are commonly used in fans inside computers and for motors in VCRs and videodisc players. Switched reluctance. This is a DC motor without permanent magnets. Synchronous. Also known as brushless AC, this motor operates synchronously with the phase of the power supply current. These motors function much like stepper motors, which will be discussed in 21. Synchro. These motors are considered distinct from the synchronous variety described previously. Synchro motors are commonly designed to be used in pairs, where a master motor electrically controls a slave motor. Rotation of the master causes an equal amount of rotation in the slave. AC induction. This is the ordinary AC motor used in fans, kitchen mixers, and many other applications. Sel-Syn. This is a brand name, often used to refer to synchronous AC motors.
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Note that AC motors aren t always operated at 50/60 Hz, which is common for household current. Motors for 400 Hz operation, for example, are common in surplus stores and are used for both aircraft and industrial applications.
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19.5 Motor Specifications
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Motors come with extensive specifications. The meaning and purpose of some of the specifications are obvious; others aren t. Let s take a look at the primary specifications of motors voltage, current draw, speed, and torque and see how they relate to your robot designs.
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19.5.1 OPERATING VOLTAGE
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All motors are rated by their operating voltage. With small DC hobby motors, the rating is actually a range, usually 1.5 to 6 V. Some high-quality DC motors are designed for a specific voltage, such as 12 or 24 V. The kinds of motors of most interest to robot builders are the low-voltage variety those that operate at 1.5 to 12 V. Most motors can be operated satisfactorily at voltages higher or lower than those specified. A 12-V motor is likely to run at 8 V, but it may not be as powerful as it could be and it will run slower (an exception to this is stepper motors; see 21, Working with Stepper Motors, for details). You ll find that most motors will refuse to run, or will not run well, at voltages under 50 percent of the specified rating. Similarly, a 12-V motor is likely to run at 16 V. As you may expect, the speed of the shaft rotation increases, and the motor will exhibit greater power. I do not recommend that you run a motor continuously at more than 30 or 40 percent its rated voltage, however. The windings may overheat, which may cause permanent damage. Motors designed for high-speed operation may turn faster than their ball-bearing construction allows. If you don t know the voltage rating of a motor, you can take a guess at it by trying var-
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