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19.5 MOTOR SPECIFICATIONS
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ious voltages and seeing which one provides the greatest power with the least amount of heat dissipated through the windings (and felt on the outside of the case). You can also listen to the motor. It should not seem as if it is straining under the stress of high speeds.
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19.5.2 CURRENT DRAW
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Current draw is the amount of current, in milliamps or amps, that the motor requires from the power supply. Current draw is more important when the specification describes motor loading, that is, when the motor is turning something or doing some work. The current draw of a free-running (no-load) motor can be quite low. But have that same motor spin a wheel, which in turn moves a robot across the floor, and the current draw jumps 300, 500, even 1000 percent. With most permanent magnet motors (the most popular kind), current draw increases with load. You can see this visually in Fig. 19-3. The more the motor has to work to turn the shaft, the more current is required. The load used by the manufacturer when testing the motor isn t standardized, so in your application the current draw may be more or less than that specified. A point is reached when the motor does all the work it can do, and no more current will flow through it. The shaft stops rotating; the motor has stalled. Some motors, but not many, are rated (by the manufacturer) by the amount of current they draw when stalled. This is considered the worst-case condition. The motor will never draw more than this current unless it is shorted out, so if the system is designed to handle the stall current it can handle anything. Motors rated by their stall current will be labeled as such. Motors designed for the military, available through surplus stores, are typically rated by their stall current. When providing motors for your robots, you should always know the approximate current draw under load. Most volt-ohm meters can test current. Some special-purpose amp meters are made just for the job. Be aware that some volt-ohm meters can t handle the kind of current pulled through a motor. Many digital meters can t deal with more than 200 to 400 mA of current in the lowcurrent settings. Small hobby motors can often draw in excess of this. Be sure your meter can accommodate current up to 5 or 10 A and is fuse protected.
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6 5 Current 4 (amps) 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Load (lb-ft) 6 7 8 9 Increasing Load
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FIGURE 19-3 The current draw of a motor increases in proportion to the load on the motor shaft.
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CHOOSING THE RIGHT MOTOR
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If your meter cannot register this high without popping fuses or burning up, insert a 1- to 10- power resistor (10 to 20 W) between one of the motor terminals and the positive supply rail, as shown in Fig. 19-4. With the meter set on DC voltage, measure the voltage developed across the resistor. A bit of Ohm s law, I = E/R (I is current, E is voltage, R is resistance) reveals the current draw through the motor. For example, if the resistance is 10 and the voltage is 2.86 V, the current draw is 286 mA. You can watch the voltage go up (and therefore the current, too) by loading the shaft of the motor. When you are actually measuring voltage across and the current through a motor, you will probably see your readings jump around quite a bit (especially if you are adding a load to your motor). When you are calculating the load of the motor, make sure that you use the worst-case (highest) value for current and the no-load (motor disconnected) voltage of your power supply to ensure that you provide enough power to your application.
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19.5.3 SPEED
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The rotational speed of a motor is given in revolutions per minute (r/min). Most continuous DC motors have a normal operating speed of 4000 to 7000 r/min. However, some specialpurpose motors, such as those used in tape recorders and computer disk drives, operate as slow as 2000 to 3000 r/min. For just about all robotic applications, these speeds are much too high. You must reduce the speed to no more than 150 r/min (even less for motors driving arms and grippers) by using a gear train. You can obtain some reduction by using electronic control, as described in Part 5 of this book, Computers and Electronic Control.
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FIGURE 19-4 How to test the current draw of a motor by measuring the voltage developed across an in-line resistor. The actual value of the resistor can vary, but it should be under about 20 . Be sure the resistor is a high-wattage type.
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