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19.5 MOTOR SPECIFICATIONS
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However, such control is designed to make fine-tuned speed adjustments, not reduce the rotation of the motor from 5000 to 50 r/min. Gears, which are explained in later sections of this chapter, are used to provide these large reductions in rotation speeds. Note that the speed of stepping motors is not rated in r/min but in steps (or pulses) per second. The speed of a stepper motor is a function of the number of steps that are required to make one full revolution plus the number of steps applied to the motor each second. As a comparison, the majority of light- and medium-duty stepper motors operate at the equivalent of 100 to 140 r/min. See 21, Working with Stepper Motors, for more information.
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19.5.4 TORQUE
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Torque is the force the motor exerts upon its load. The higher the torque, the larger the load can be and the faster the motor will spin under that load. Reduce the torque, and the motor slows down, straining under the workload. Reduce the torque even more, and the load may prove too demanding for the motor. The motor will stall to a grinding halt, and in doing so eat up current (and put out a lot of heat). Torque is perhaps the most confusing design aspect of motors. This is not because there is anything inherently difficult about it but because motor manufacturers have yet to settle on a standard means of measurement. Motors made for industry are rated one way, motors for the military another. At its most basic level, torque is measured by attaching a lever to the end of the motor shaft and a weight or gauge on the end of that lever, as depicted in Fig. 19-5. The lever can be any number of lengths: 1 cm, 1 in, or 1 ft. Remember this because it plays an important role in torque measurement. The weight can either be a hunk or lead or, more commonly, a spring-loaded scale (as shown in the figure). Turn the motor on and it turns the lever. The amount of weight it lifts is the torque of the motor. There is more to motor testing than this, of course, but it ll do for the moment. Now for the ratings game. Remember the length of the lever That length is used in the torque specification. If the lever is 1 in long, and the weight successfully lifted is 2 oz, then the motor is said to have a torque of 2 oz-in. (Some people reverse the ounce and inches and come up with inch-ounces. ) The unit of length for the lever usually depends on the unit of measurement given for the weight. When the weight is in grams, the lever is in centimeters (gm-cm). When the weight is in ounces, as already seen, the lever used is in inches (oz-in). Finally, when the weight is in pounds, the lever used is commonly in feet (lb-ft). Like the ounce-inch measurement, gram-centimeter and pound-foot specifications can be reversed centimeter-gram or foot-pound. Note that these easy-to-follow conventions aren t always used. Some motors may be rated by a mixture of the standards ounces and feet or pounds and inches.
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19.5.5 STALL OR RUNNING TORQUE
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Most motors are rated by their running torque, or the force they exert as long as the shaft continues to rotate. For robotic applications, it s the most important rating because it determines how large the load can be and still guarantee that the motor turns. How running torque tests are conducted varies from one motor manufacturer to another, so results can
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CHOOSING THE RIGHT MOTOR
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FIGURE 19-5 The torque of a motor is measured by attaching a weight or scale to the end of a lever and mounting the lever of the motor shaft.
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differ. The tests are impractical to duplicate in the home shop, unless you have an elaborate slip-clutch test stand, precision scale, and sundry other test jigs. If the motor(s) you are looking at doesn t have running torque ratings, you must estimate its relative strength. This can be done by mounting it on a makeshift wood or metal platform, attaching wheels, and having it scoot around the floor. If the motor supports the platform, start piling on weights. If the motor continues to operate with, say, 40 or 50 lb of junk on the platform, you ve got an excellent motor for driving your robot. Some motors you may test aren t designed for hauling heavy loads, but they may be suitable for operating arms, grippers, and other mechanical components. You can test the relative strength of these motors by securing them in a vise, then attaching a large pair of Vise-Grips or other lockable pliers to them. Use your own hand as a test jig, or rig one up with fishing weights. Determine the rotational power of the motor by applying juice to the motor and seeing how many weights it can successfully handle. Such crude tests make more sense if you have a standard by which to judge others. If you ve designed a robotic arm before, for example, and are making another one, test the motors that you successfully used in your prototype. If subsequent motors fail to match or exceed the test results of the standard, you know they are unsuitable for the test. Another torque specification, stall torque, is sometimes provided by the manufacturer instead of or in addition to running torque (this is especially true of stepping motors). Stall torque is the force exerted by the motor when the shaft is clamped tight. There is an indirect relationship between stall torque and running torque, and although it varies from motor to motor you can use the stall torque rating when you select candidate motors for your robot designs.
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