vb.net barcode reader source code Connecting to the Motor Shaft in Software

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19.9 Connecting to the Motor Shaft
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Connecting the shaft of the motor to a gear, wheel, lever, or other mechanical part is probably the most difficult task of all. There is one exception to this, however: R/C servo motors are easier to mount, which is one reason they are so popular in hobby robotics. Motor shafts come in many different sizes, and because most if not all of the motors you ll use will come from surplus outlets, the shaft may be peculiar to the specific application for which the motor was designed. Common shaft sizes are 1 16- and 1 8-in for small hobby motors and 1 4-, 3 8-, or 5 16-in for
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CHOOSING THE RIGHT MOTOR
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FIGURE 19-15 Use a setscrew to secure the gear to the shaft.
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larger motors and gearboxes. Gear hubs are generally 1 4-, 1 2-, or 5 8-in, so you ll need to find reducing bushings at an industrial supply store. Surplus is also a good source. The same goes for wheels, sprockets (for roller chain and timing pulleys), and bearings. To attach things like gears and sprockets, the gear or sprocket must usually be physically secured to the shaft by way of a setscrew, as depicted in Fig. 19-15. Sometimes a press fit is all that s required. Most better-made gears and sprockets have the setscrews in them or have provisions for inserting them. If the gear or sprocket has no setscrew and there is no hole for one, you ll have to drill and tap the hole for the screw. There are two common alternatives if you can t use a setscrew. The first method is to add a spline, or key, to secure the gear or sprocket to the shaft. This requires some careful machining, as you must make a slot for the spline in the shaft as well as for the hub of the gear or sprocket. Another method is to thread the gear shaft, and mount the gear or sprocket using nuts and split lock washers (the split in the washer provides compression that keeps the assembly from working loose). Shaft threading is also sometimes necessary when you are attaching wheels. Many people find that threading the shaft is easier. Threading requires you to lock the shaft so it won t turn, which can be a problem with some motors. Also, be careful that the shavings from the threading die do not fall into the motor. Attaching two shafts to one another is a common, but not insurmountable, problem. The best approach is to use a coupler. You tighten the coupler to the shaft using setscrews. Couplers are available from industrial supply houses and can be expensive, so shop carefully. Some couplers are flexible; that is, they give if the two shafts aren t perfectly aligned. These are the best, considering the not-too-close tolerances inherent in home-built robots. Some couplers are available that accept two shafts of different sizes.
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To learn more about . . . Robot locomotion systems Read 18, Principles of Robot Locomotion
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All about DC motors All about stepper motors All about servo motors Operating motors by computer Interfacing motors to electronic circuitry
20, Working with DC Motors 21, Working with Stepper Motors 22, Working with Servo Motors 12, An Overview of Robot Brains 14, Computer Peripherals
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CHAPTER
WORKING WITH DC MOTORS
C motors are the mainstay of robotics. A surprisingly small motor, when connected to wheels through a gear reduction system, can power a 25-, 50-, even 100-lb robot with ease. A flick of a switch, a click of a relay, or a tick of a transistor, and the motor stops in its tracks and turns the other way. A simple electronic circuit enables you to gain quick and easy control over speed from a slow crawl to a fast sprint. This chapter shows you how to apply open-loop continuous DC motors (as opposed to servo DC motors, which use position feedback) to drive your robots. The emphasis is on using motors to propel a robot across your living room floor, but you can use the same control techniques for any motor application, including gripper closure, elbow flexion, and sensor positioning.
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