vb.net barcode reader source code WORKING WITH DC MOTORS in Software

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WORKING WITH DC MOTORS
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FIGURE 20-5 Using a relay to turn a motor on and off. The input signal is TTL/microprocessor compatible.
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Controlling the direction of the motor is only a little more difficult. This requires a doublepole, double-throw (DPDT) relay, wired in series after the on/off relay just described (see Fig. 20-6; refer to the parts list in Table 20-2). With the contacts in the relay in one position, the motor turns clockwise. Activate the relay, and the contacts change positions, turning the motor counterclockwise. Again, you can easily control the direction relay with digital signals. Logical 0 makes the motor turn in one direction (let s say forward), and logical 1 makes the motor turn in the other direction. Both on/off and direction relay controls are shown combined in Fig. 20-7. You can quickly see how to control the operation and direction of a motor using just two data bits from a computer. Since most robot designs incorporate two drive motors, you can control the movement and direction of your robot with just four data bits. When selecting relays, make sure the contacts are rated for the motors you are using. All relays carry contact ratings, and they vary from a low of about 0.5 A to over 10 A, at 125 V. Highercapacity relays are larger and may require bigger transistors to trigger them (the very small reed relays can often be triggered by digital control without adding the transistor). For most applications, you don t need a relay rated higher than 2 or 3 A.
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TABLE 20-1 RL1 Q1 R1 D1
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Parts List for On/Off Relay Control SPDT relay, 5 V coil, contacts rated 2 A or more 2N2222 NPN transistor 1K resistor 1N4003 diode
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20.3 MOTOR CONTROL
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Ground +5V
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Direction Control Signal CW 1 CCW 0
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D2 1N4003 c Q1 2N2222
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FIGURE 20-6 Using a relay to control the direction of a motor. The input signal is TTL/microprocessor compatible.
20.3.2 BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR CONTROL
Bipolar transistors provide true solid-state control of motors. For the purpose of motor control, you use the bipolar transistor as a simple switch. By the way, note that when a transistor is referred to in this section it is a bipolar transistor. There are many kinds of transistors you can use, including the field effect transistor, or FET. In fact, FETs will be discussed in the next section. There are two common ways to implement the transistor control of motors. One way is shown in Fig. 20-8 (see the parts list in Table 20-3). Here, two transistors do all the work. The motor is connected so that when one transistor is switched on, the shaft turns clockwise. When the other transistor is turned on, the shaft turns counterclockwise. When both transistors are off, the motor stops turning. Notice that this setup requires a dual-polarity
TABLE 20-2 RL1 Q1 R1 D1
Parts List for Direction Relay Control DPDT relay, 5V coil, contacts rated 2 A or more 2N2222 NPN transistor 1K resistor 1N4003 diode
WORKING WITH DC MOTORS
Motor Supply
On/Off Control Signal On 1 Off 0
D1 1N4003 R1 1K b e c Q1 2N2222
Ground +5V
Direction Control Signal CW CCW 1 0
R2 1K b
D2 1N4003 c Q2 2N2222 e
FIGURE 20-7 Both on/off and direction relay controls in one.
+V R1 1-3K c D1 1N4002
Direction Control
b Q1 TIP31
R2 1-3K b Q2 TIP32
D2 1N4002
FIGURE 20-8 Using a complementary pair of transistors to control the direction of a motor. Note the double-ended (+ and ) power supply.
20.3 MOTOR CONTROL
TABLE 20-3 Q1 Q2 R1, R2 D1, D2 Misc.
Parts List for Two-Transistor Motor Direction Control TIP31 NPN power transistor TIP32 PNP power transistor 1 3K resistor 1N4002 diode Heat sinks for transistors
power supply. The schematic calls for a 6-V motor and a 6-V and 6-V power source. This is known as a split power supply. Perhaps the most common way to control DC motors is to use the H-bridge network, as shown in Fig. 20-9 (see the parts list in Table 20-4). The figure shows a simplified Hbridge; some designs get quite complicated. However, this one will do for most hobby robot applications. The H-bridge is wired in such a way that only two transistors are on at a time. When transistors 1 and 4 are on, the motor turns in one direction. When transistors 2 and 3 are on, the motor spins the other way. When all transistors are off, the motor remains still. Note that the resistor is used to bias the base of each transistor. These are necessary to prevent the transistor from pulling excessive current from the gate controlling it (computer port, logic gate, whatever). Without the resistor, the gate would overheat and be
FIGURE 20-9 Four NPN transistors connected in an H pattern can be used to control the direction of a motor. The power supply is single ended.
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