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TABLE 20-4 Q1 Q4 R1 R4 D1 D4 Misc.
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Parts List for H-Bridge Bipolar Transistor Motor Direction Control TIP41 NPN power transistor 1 3K resistor 1N4002 diode Heat sinks for transistors
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destroyed. The actual value of the bias resistor depends on the voltage and current draw of the motor, as well as the characteristics of the particular transistors used. For ballpark computations, the resistor is usually in the 1K- to 3K- range. You can calculate the exact value of the resistor using Ohm s law, taking into account the gain and current output of the transistor, or you can experiment until you find a resistor value that works. Start high and work down, noting when the controlling electronics seem to get too hot. Don t go below 1K. The transistors you choose should comply with some general guidelines. First, they must be capable of handling the current draw demanded by the motors, but which specific transistor you finally choose will largely depend on your application and your design preference. Most large drive motors draw about 1 to 3 A continuously, so the transistors you choose should be able to handle this. This immediately rules out the small signal transistors, which are rated for no more than a few hundred milliamps. A good NPN transistor for medium-duty applications is the TIP31, which comes in a TO-220 style case. Its PNP counterpart is the TIP32. Both of these transistors are universally available. Use them with suitable heat sinks. For high-power applications, the NPN transistor that s almost universally used is the 2N3055 (get the version in the TO-3 case; it handles more power). Its close PNP counterpart is the MJ2955 (or 2N2955). Both transistors can handle up to 10 A (115 W) when used with a heat sink, such as the one in Fig. 20-10. Another popular transistor to use in H-bridges is the TIP120, which is known as a Darlington transistor. Internally, it s actually two transistors: a smaller booster transistor and a larger power transistor. The TIP120 is preferred because it s often easier to interface it with control electronics. Some transistors, like the 2N3055, require a hefty amount of current in order to switch, and not all computer ports can supply this current. If you re not using a Darlington like the TIP120, it s sometimes necessary to use small-signal transistors (the 2N2222 is common) between the computer port and the power transistor. The driving transistors should be located off the main circuit board ideally directly on a large heat sink or at least on a heavy board with clip-on or bolt-on heat sinks attached to the transistors (as in Fig. 20-10). Use the proper mounting hardware when attaching transistors to heat sinks. Remember that with most power transistors, the case is the collector terminal. This is particularly important when there is more than one transistor on a common heat sink and they aren t supposed to have their collectors connected together. It s also important when
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20.3 MOTOR CONTROL
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FIGURE 20-10 Power transistors mounted on a heat sink.
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that heat sink is connected to the grounded metal frame of the robot. You can avoid any extra hassle by using the insulating washer provided in most transistor mounting kits. The power leads from the battery and to the motor should be 12- to 16-gauge wire. Use solder lugs or crimp-on connectors to attach the wire to the terminals of T0-3-style transistors. Don t tap off power from the electronics for the driver transistors; get it directly from the battery or main power distribution rail. See 17, All about Batteries and Robot Power Supplies, for more detail about robot power distribution systems.
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20.3.3 POWER MOSFET CONTROL
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Wouldn t it be nice if you could use a transistor without bothering with current limiting resistors Well, you can as long as you use a special brand of transistor, the power MOSFET. The MOSFET part stands for metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor. The power part means you can use it for motor control without worrying about it or the controlling circuitry going up in smoke. Physically, MOSFETs look a lot like bipolar transistors, but there are a few important differences. First, like CMOS ICs, it is entirely possible to damage a MOSFET device by zapping it with static electricity. When handling it, always keep the protective foam around the terminals. Further, the names of the terminals are different from transistors. Instead of base,
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