vb.net barcode reader source code WORKING WITH DC MOTORS in Software

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WORKING WITH DC MOTORS
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emitter, and collector, MOSFETs have a gate, source, and drain. You can easily damage a MOSFET by connecting it in the circuit improperly. Always refer to the pinout diagram before wiring the circuit, and double-check your work. When MOSFETs are on, the resistance between the drain and source (usually referred to as RDS in data sheets) is given as a parameter. The lower the drain and source resistance, the higher performing the transistor. This resistance represents power loss and the lower the RDS the lower the power loss in the MOSFETS and the smaller a heat sink that can be used with them. A commonly available power MOSFET is the IRF-5XX series (such as the IRF-520, IRF530, etc.) from International Rectifier, one of the world s leading manufacturers of power MOSFET components. These N-channel MOSFETs come in a T0-220-style transistor case and can control several amps of current (when on a suitable heat sink). A current limiting circuit that uses MOSFETs is shown in Fig. 20-11 (see the parts list in Table 20-5). Note the similarity between this design and the transistor design on Fig. 20-9. An even better H-bridge with power MOSFETs uses two N-channel MOSFETs for the low side of the bridge and two complementary P-channel MOSFETs for the high side. The use of complementary MOSFETs allows all four transistors in the H-bridge to turn completely on, thereby supplying the motor with full voltage. Fig. 20-12 shows a revised schematic (refer to the parts list in Table 20-6). In both circuits, logic gates provide positive-action control. When the control signal is LOW, the motor turns clockwise. When the control signal is HIGH, the motor turns counterclockwise.
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+12V +12V 14 1 2 7 4011 (1/4) g 3 s d Q1 D1 C1 0.1 D3 d Q3 s g
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FIGURE 20-11 Four N-channel power MOSFET transistors in an H pattern can be used to control the direction of a motor. In a circuit application such as this, MOSFET devices do not strictly require current limiting resistors, as do standard transistors.
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20.3 MOTOR CONTROL
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TABLE 20-5 IC1 Q1 Q4 D1 D4 Misc.
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Parts List for N-Channel Power MOSFET Motor Control Bridge 4011 CMOS Quad NAND Gate IC IRF-5XX series (e.g., IRF-530 or equiv.) N-channel power MOSFET 1N4002 diode Heat sinks for transistors
20.3.4 MOTOR BRIDGE CONTROL
The control of motors is big business, and it shouldn t come as a surprise that dozens of companies offer all-in-one solutions for controlling motors through fully electronic means. These products range from inexpensive $2 integrated circuits to sophisticated modules costing tens of thousands of dollars. Of course, the discussion will be confined to the low end of this scale! The basic motor control is an H-bridge, as discussed earlier an all-in-one integrated circuit package. Bridges for high-current motors tend to be physically large, and they may come with heat fins or have connections to a heat sink. A good example of a motor bridge is the Allegro Microsystems 3952, which provides in one single package a much improved version of the circuit shown in Fig. 20-13. Motor control bridges have two or more pins on them for connection to control electronics. Typical functions for the pins are:
Q1 P-Channel d g Control Signal A s
Q3 P-Channel g Control Signal B
CMOS Buffer g Q2 N-Channel s d d CMOS Buffer g Q4 s N-Channel
FIGURE 20-12 Combination N- and P-channel MOSFET transistors can be used to increase the voltage flowing to the motors. The MOSFETs should be complementary pairs (made to work with one another) that share the same voltage and current ratings. Most makers of MOSFET transistors provide complementary N- and P-channel products.
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TABLE 20-6 IC1 Q1, Q3 Q2, Q4 D1 D4 Misc.
Parts List for N-Channel Power MOSFET Motor Control Bridge 4011 CMOS Quad NAND Gate IC IRF-9530 (or equiv.) P-channel power MOSFET IRF-5XX series (e.g., IRF-530 or equiv.) N-channel power MOSFET 1N4002 diode Heat sinks for transistors
Motor enable. When enabled, the motor turns on. When disabled, the motor turns off. Some bridges let the motor float when disabled; that is, the motor coasts to a stop. On other bridges, disabling the motor causes a full or partial short across the motor terminals, which acts as a brake to stop the motor very quickly. Direction. Setting the direction pin changes the direction of the motor. Brake. On bridges that allow the motor to float when the enable pin is disengaged, a separate brake input is used to specifically control the braking action of the motor. PWM. Most H-bridge motor control ICs are used not only to control the direction and power of the motor, but its speed as well. The typical means used to vary the speed of a motor is with pulse width modulation, or PWM. This topic is described more fully in the next section.
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