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TABLE 21-3 IC1 IC2
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Parts List for CMOS Stepper Motor Translator 4070 Quad Exclusive OR Gate IC 4027 Dual JK flip-flop IC
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21.3 CONTROLLING A STEPPER MOTOR
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FIGURE 21-10 Add four transistors and resistors to provide a power output stage for the TTL or CMOS stepper motor translator circuits.
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Fig. 21-12 shows two stepper motor translator boards. The small board controls up to two stepper motors and is designed using TTL chips. The LED option is used to provide a visual reference of the step sequence. The large board uses CMOS chips and can accommodate up to four motors. The boards were wire-wrapped; the driving transistors are placed on a separate board and heat sink.
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21.3.4 TRIGGERING THE TRANSLATOR CIRCUITS
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You need a square wave generator to provide the triggering pulses for the motors. You can use the 555 timer wired as an astable multivibrator, or make use of a control line in your
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TABLE 21-4 Q1 Q4 R1 R4 D1 D4 Misc.
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Parts List for Stepper Motor Driver Under 1 A draw per phase: TIP32 NPN transistor 1 to 3 A draw per phase: TIP120 NPN Darlington transistor 1K resistor, 1 W 1N4004 diode Heat sinks for transistors
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WORKING WITH STEPPER MOTORS
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To Flip-Flop Outputs
FIGURE 21-11 Add four LEDs and resistors to provide a visual indication of the stepping action.
computer or microcontroller. When using the 555, remember to add the 0.1 F capacitor across the power pins of the chip. The 555 puts a lot of noise into the power supply, and this noise regularly disturbs the counting logic in the exclusive OR and flip-flop chips. If you are getting erratic results from your circuit, this is probably the cause.
21.3.5 USING BIPOLAR STEPPER MOTORS
As detailed earlier in the chapter, unipolar stepper motors contain four coils in which two of the coils are joined to make a center tap. This center tap is the common connection for the motor. Bipolar stepper motors contain two coils, do not use a common connection, and are generally less expensive because they are easier to manufacture. A bipolar stepper motor has four external connection points. An old method for operating a bipolar stepper motor was to use relays to reverse the polarity of a DC voltage to two coils. This caused the motor to inch forward or backward, depending on the phasing sequence. Today, the more common method for operating a bipolar stepper motor is to use a specialty stepper motor translator, such as the SGS-Thompson L297D (the L297D can also be used to drive unipolar stepper motors). To add more current driving capacity to the L297D
TABLE 21-5 R1 R4 LED1 4
Parts List for Stepper Motor Translator LED Display 330 resistors Visible light LEDs
21.3 CONTROLLING A STEPPER MOTOR
FIGURE 21-12 Two finished stepper motor translator boards, with indicator LEDs. The board on the left controls two stepper motors; the board on the right controls four stepper motors.
you can add a dual H-bridge driver, such as the L298N, which is available from the same company. The truth table for the typical driving sequence of a bipolar stepper motor is shown in Fig. 21-13.
21.3.6 BUYING AND TESTING A STEPPER MOTOR
Spend some time with a stepper motor and you ll invariably come to admire its design and be able to think up all sorts of ways to make it work for you in your robot designs. But to use a stepper, you have to get one. That in itself is not always easy. Then after you have obtained it and taken it home, there s the question of figuring out where all the wires go! Let s take each problem one at a time.
21.3.7 SOURCES FOR STEPPER MOTORS
Despite their many advantages, stepper motors aren t nearly as common as the trusty DC motor, so they are harder to find. And when you do find them, they re expensive when new. The surplus market is by far the best source for stepper motors for hobby robotics. See Appendix B, Sources, for a list of selected mail-order surplus companies that regularly carry a variety of stepper motors. They carry most of the name brand steppers: Thompson-
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