vb.net barcode reader source code WORKING WITH STEPPER MOTORS in Software

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WORKING WITH STEPPER MOTORS
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FIGURE 21-13 The phasing sequence for a bipolar stepper motor.
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FIGURE 21-14 Pictorial diagrams of the coils in a bipolar and unipolar stepper motor.
21.3 CONTROLLING A STEPPER MOTOR
Airpax, Molon, Haydon, and Superior Electric. The cost of surplus steppers is often a quarter or fifth of the original list price. The disadvantage of buying surplus is that you don t always get a hookup diagram or adequate specifications. Purchasing surplus stepper motors is largely a hit-or-miss affair, but most outlets let you return the goods if they aren t what you need. If you like the motor, yet it still lacks a hookup diagram, read the following section on how to decode the wiring.
21.3.8 WIRING DIAGRAM
The internal wiring diagram of both a bipolar and unipolar stepper motor is shown in Fig. 21-14. The wiring in a bipolar stepper is actually easy to decode. A DMM is used to measure the resistance between wire pairs. You can be fairly sure the motor is two-phase if it has only four wires leading to it. You can identify the phases by connecting the leads of the meter to each wire and noting the resistance. Wire pairs that give an open reading (infinite ohms) represent two different coils (phases). You can readily identify mating phases when there is a small resistance through the wire pair. Unipolar steppers behave the same, but with a slight twist. Let s say, for argument s sake, that the motor has eight wires leading to it. Each winding, then, has a pair of wires. Connect your meter to each wire in turn to identify the mating pairs. As illustrated in Fig. 21-15, no reading (infinite ohms) signifies that the wires do not lead to the same winding; a reading indicates a winding. If the motor has six wires, then four of the leads go to one side of the windings. The other two are commons and connect to the other side of the windings (see Fig. 21-16). Decoding this wiring scheme takes some patience, but it can be done. First, separate all
R Meter Connections
Open
Open
FIGURE 21-15 Connection points and possible readings on an eight-wire unipolar stepper motor.
WORKING WITH STEPPER MOTORS
Phase Input Possible Connections
FIGURE 21-16 Common connections may reduce the wire count of the stepper motor to five or six, instead of eight.
2X Meter Connections
FIGURE 21-17 Connection points and possible readings on a five- or six-wire unipolar stepper motor.
21.4 FROM HERE
those wires where you get an open reading. At the end of your test, there should be two three-wire sets that provide some reading among each of the leads. Locate the common wire by following these steps. Take a measurement of each combination of the wires and note the results. You should end up with three measurements: wires 1 and 2, wires 2 and 3, and wires 1 and 3. The meter readings will be the same for two of the sets. For the third set, the resistance should be roughly doubled. These two wires are the main windings. The remaining wire is the common. Decoding a five-wire motor is the most straightforward procedure. Measure each wire combination, noting the results of each. When you test the leads to one winding, the result will be a specified resistance (let s call it R ). When you test the leads to two of the windings, the resistance will be double the value of R, as shown in Fig. 21-17. Isolate this common wire with further testing and you ve successfully decoded the wiring.
21.4 From Here
To learn more about . . . Driving a robot Selecting a motor for your robot Connecting motors to computers, microcontrollers, and other electronic circuitry Read 18, Principles of Robot Locomotion 19, Choosing the Right Motor 14, Computer Peripherals
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CHAPTER
WORKING WITH SERVO MOTORS
C and stepper motors are inherently open feedback systems you provide electricity and they spin. How much they spin is not always known, not even for a stepper motor, which turns by finite degrees based on the number of pulses it gets. Should something impede the rotation of the motor it may not turn at all, but there s no easy, built-in way that the control electronics would know that. Servo motors, on the other hand, are designed for closed feedback systems. The output of the motor is coupled to a control circuit; as the motor turns, its speed and/or position are relayed to the control circuit. If the rotation of the motor is impeded for whatever reason, the feedback mechanism senses that the output of the motor is not yet in the desired location. The control circuit continues to correct the error until the motor finally reaches its proper point. Servo motors come in various shapes and sizes. Some are smaller than a walnut, while others are large enough to take up their own seat in your car. They re used for everything from controlling computer-operated lathes to copy machines to model airplanes and cars. It s the last application that is of most interest to hobby robot builders: the same servo motors used with model airplanes and cars can readily be used with your robot. These servo motors are designed to be operated via a radio-controlled link and so are commonly referred to as radio-controlled (or R/C) servos. But in fact the servo motor itself is not what is radio-controlled; it is merely connected to a radio receiver on the plane or car. The servo takes its signals from the receiver. This means you don t have to control your robot via radio signals just to use an R/C servo unless you want to, of course. You can
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