vb.net barcode reader source code The Role of the Potentiometer in Software

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22.3 The Role of the Potentiometer
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The potentiometer of the servo plays a key role in determining when the motor has set the output shaft to the correct position. The potentiometer is physically attached to the output shaft (and in some servo models, the potentiometer is the output shaft). In this way, the position of the potentiometer very accurately reflects the position of the output shaft of the servo. When used in a servo, a potentiometer is wired as a voltage divider and provides a varying voltage to the control circuit when the servo output changes, as shown in Fig. 22-4. The control circuit in the servo correlates this voltage with the timing of the incoming digital pulses and generates an error signal if the voltage is wrong. This error signal is pro-
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22.5 SPECIAL-PURPOSE SERVO TYPES AND SIZES
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FIGURE 22-4 A potentiometer is often used as a variable voltage divider. As the potentiometer turns, its wiper travels the length of a resistive element. The output of the potentiometer is a varying voltage, from 0 to the +V of the circuit.
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portional to the difference between the position of the potentiometer and the timing of the incoming signal. To compensate, the control board applies the error signal to turn the motor. When the voltage from the potentiometer and the timing of the digital pulses match, the error signal is removed, and the motor stops.
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22.4 Rotational Limits
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Servos also vary by the amount of rotation they will perform for the 1 to 2 ms signal they are provided. Most standard servos are designed to rotate back and forth by 90 to 180 , given the full range of timing pulses. You ll find the majority of servos will be able to turn a full 180 , or very nearly so. Should you attempt to command a servo beyond its mechanical limits, the output shaft of the motor will hit an internal stop. This causes the gears of the servo to grind or chatter. If left this way for more than a few seconds, the gears of the motor or the motor itself and its drivers may be permanently damaged. Therefore, when experimenting with servo motors exercise care to avoid pushing them beyond their natural limits. The actual length of the pulses is fairly constant at 1 to 2 ms for most manufacturers products, but it should be noted that the Futaba brand and servos that are compatible have a 1 to 1.5 ms pulse width. There can be a problem with passing a 2 ms pulse to a Futaba servo if the pulse causes the servo to push against its stop (potentially damaging the servo). Rather than experimenting on an unknown servo with 1 to 2 ms pulses, you should start with 1 to 1.5 ms pulses and raise the pulse width to 2 ms if the servo only turns 45 degrees.
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22.5 Special-Purpose Servo Types and Sizes
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While the standard-sized servo is the one most commonly used in both robotics and radiocontrolled models, other R/C servo types, styles, and sizes exist as well.
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WORKING WITH SERVO MOTORS
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Quarter-scale (or large-scale) servos are about twice the size of standard servos and are significantly more powerful. Quarter-scale servos are designed to be used in large model airplanes, but they also make perfect power motors for a robot. Mini-micro servos are about half the size (and smaller!) of standard servos and are designed to be used in tight spaces in a model airplane or car. They aren t as strong as standard servos, however. Sail winch servos are designed with maximum strength in mind, and are primarily intended to move the jib and mainsail sheets on a model sailboat. Landing-gear retraction servos are made to retract the landing gear of medium- and large-sized model airplanes. The design of the landing gear often requires the servo to guarantee at least 170 rotation, if not more (i.e., up to and exceeding 360 of motion). It is not uncommon for retraction servos to have a slimmer profile than the standard variety because of the limited space on model airplanes.
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