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22.8 Connector Styles and Wiring
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While many aspects of servos are standardized, there is much variety between manufacturers in the shape and electrical contacts of the connectors used to attach the servo to a receiver. Despite this diversity, you will find that you can usually connect servos to three
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WORKING WITH SERVO MOTORS
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FIGURE 22-5 The standard pinout of servos is pin 1 for signal, pin 2 for +V, and pin 3 for ground. In this configuration damage will not usually occur if you accidentally reverse the connector.
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standard 0.100 connector posts either soldered into a PCB or pressed into a breadboard. You may decide the connector issue isn t worth the hassle, and just cut it off from the servo, hardwiring it to your electronics. This is an acceptable alternative, but hardwiring makes it more difficult to replace the servo should it ever fail.
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22.8.1 CONNECTOR TYPE
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There are three primary connector types found on R/C servos:
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J or Futaba style A or Airtronics style S or Hitec/JR style
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Servos made by the principle servo manufacturers Futaba, Airtronics, Hitec, and JR employ the connector style popularized by that manufacturer. In addition, servos made by competing manufacturers are usually available in a variety of connector styles, and connector adapters are available.
TABLE 22-2 BRAND
Connector Pinouts of Popular Servo Brands PIN 1 (LEFT) Signal Signal Signal Signal Signal PIN 2 (CENTER) +V Gnd +V +V +V PIN 3 (RIGHT) Gnd +V Gnd Gnd Gnd
Airtronics ( new style) Airtronics ( old style) Futaba Hitec JR
22.9 CIRCUITS FOR CONTROLLING A SERVO
TABLE 22-3 SERVO Airtronics
Color Coding of Popular Servo Brands +V Red Red stripe Brown GND Black Blue Brown Black Black Black Black Brown Black Black Black (in center) Orange White White White Yellow Orange Blue Orange Yellow Black SIGNAL White
Cirrus Daehwah Fleet Futaba Hitec JR KO Kraft Sanwa
Red Red Red Red Red Red Red Red (4.8 v) White (2.4 v) Red stripe
22.8.2 PINOUT AND COLOR CODING
The physical shape of the connector is just one consideration. The wiring of the connectors (called the pinout) is also critical. Fortunately, all but the old-style Airtronics servos (and the occasional oddball four-wire servo) use the same pinout, as shown in Fig. 22-5. With very few exceptions, R/C servo connectors use three wires, providing DC power, ground, and signal (or control). Table 22-2 lists the pinouts for several popular brands of servos. Most servos use color coding to indicate the function of each connection wire, but the actual colors used for the wires vary between servo makers. Table 22-3 lists the most common colors used in several popular brands, but chances are you will be right if you assume that red is positive voltage, black is negative, and the third wire is the signal.
22.9 Circuits for Controlling a Servo
Unlike a DC motor, which runs if you simply attach battery power to its leads, a servo motor requires proper interface electronics in order to rotate its output shaft. While the need for interface electronics may complicate to some degree your use of servos, the electronics are actually rather simple. And if you plan on operating your servos with a PC or microcontroller (such as the BASIC Stamp), all you need for the job is a few lines of software. A DC motor typically needs power transistors, MOSFETs, or relays if it is interfaced to
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a computer. A servo on the other hand can be directly coupled to a PC or microcontroller with no additional electronics. All of the power-handling needs are taken care of by the control board in the servo, saving you the hassle. This is one of the key benefits of using servos with computer-controlled robots.
22.9.1 CONTROLLING A SERVO VIA A 556 TIMER CHIP
You don t need a computer to control a servo. You can use the venerable 555 timer IC circuit that is doubled in the 556 chip to provide the required pulses to a servo. This circuit uses one of the 555 timers built into the chip to provide the 20 ms pulse period and the second timer to provide the 1 to 2 ms pulse. Fig. 22-6 shows the circuit that can be used to control a servo, and Table 22-4 lists the parts that you will need.
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