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2.10 SMART VERSUS DUMB ROBOTS
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External sounds are easy to detect, and unless you re trying to listen for a specific kind of sound, circuits for sound detection are simple and straightforward. Sounds can be control signals (such as clapping to change the motion of the robot) or could even be a type of object detection (the crunch of the collision can be heard and responded to). Sensitivity to light is also common, and trying to follow a light beam is a classic early robot control application. Sometimes the light sensed is restricted to a slender band of infrared for the purpose of sensing the heat of a fire or navigating through a room using an invisible infrared light beam. Robot eyesight is a completely different matter. The visual scene surrounding the robot must be electronically rendered into a form the circuits on the robot can accept, and the machine must be programmed to understand and act on the shapes it sees. A great deal of experimental work is underway to allow robots to distinguish objects, but true robot vision is limited to well-funded research teams. 32, Robot Vision, provides the basics on how to give crude sight to a robot. Simple pressure sensors can be constructed cheaply and quickly, however, and though they aren t as accurate as commercially manufactured pressure sensors, they are more than adequate for hobby robotics. The senses of smell and taste aren t generally implemented in robot systems, though some security robots designed for industrial use are outfitted with a gas sensor that, in effect, smells the presence of dangerous toxic gas.
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2.9 Output Devices
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Output devices are components that relay information from the robot to the outside world. Common output devices in computer-controlled robots include audio outputs, multiple LEDs, the video screen or (liquid crystal display) panel. As with a personal computer, the robot communicates with its master by flashing messages on a screen or panel. Another popular robotic output device is the speech synthesizer. In the 1968 movie 2001: A Space Odyssey, Hal the computer talks to its shipmates in a soothing but electronic voice. The idea of a talking computer was a rather novel concept at the time of the movie, but today voice synthesis is commonplace. Many hobbyists build robots that contain sound and music generators. These generators are commonly used as warning signals, but by far the most frequent application of speech, music, and sound is for entertainment purposes. Somehow, a robot that wakes you up to an electronic rendition of Bach seems a little more human. Projects in robot sound-making circuits are provided in 31, Sound Output and Input.
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2.10 Smart versus Dumb Robots
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There are smart robots and there are dumb robots, but the difference really has nothing to do with intelligence. Even taking into consideration the science of artificial intelligence, all
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ANATOMY OF A ROBOT
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self-contained autonomous robots are fairly unintelligent, no matter how sophisticated the electronic brain that controls it. Intelligence is not a measurement of computing capacity but the ability to reason, to figure out how to do something by examining all the variables and choosing the best course of action, perhaps even coming up with a course that is entirely new. In this book, the difference between dumb and smart is defined as the ability to take two or more pieces of data and decide on a preprogrammed course of action. Usually, a smart robot is one that is controlled by a computer. However, some amazingly sophisticated actions can be built into an automaton that contains no computer; instead it relies on simple electronics to provide the robot with some known behavior (such is the concept of BEAM robotics). A dumb robot is one that blindly goes about its task, never taking the time to analyze its actions and what impact they may have. Using a computer as the brains of a robot will provide you with a great deal of operating flexibility. Unlike a control circuit, which is wired according to a schematic plan and performs a specified task, a computer can be electronically rewired using software instructions that is, programs. To be effective, the electronics must be connected to all the input and output devices as the feedback and control subsystems, respectively. This includes the drive motors, the motors that control the arm, the speech synthesizer, the pressure sensors, and so forth. This book presents the theory behind computer control and some sample projects in later chapters. By following some basic rules, using standard components and code templates, it is not terribly difficult to provide computer control in your robot. While most robot controllers are based on small, inexpensive microcontrollers, you can permanently integrate some computers, particularly laptops, into your larger robot projects.
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