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FIGURE 25-9 Concept of using SMA wire with a mechanical pulley.
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25.4.3 SHAPE-MEMORY ALLOY MECHANISMS
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With the SMA properly terminated and actuated, it s up to you and your own imagination to think of ways to use it in your robots. Fig. 25-9 shows a typical application using an SMA wire in a pulley configuration. Apply current to the wire and the pulley turns, giving you rotational motion. A large-diameter pulley will turn very little when the SMA tenses up, but a small-diameter one will turn an appreciable distance. Fig. 25-10 shows a length of SMA wire used in a lever arrangement. Here, the metal strand is attached to one end of a bell crank. On the opposite end is a bias spring. Applying juice to the wire causes the bell crank to move. The spot where you attach the drive arm dictates the amount of movement you will obtain when the SMA contracts. SMA wire is tiny stuff, and you will find that the miniature hardware designed for model R/C airplanes is most useful for constructing mechanisms. Most any well-stocked hobby
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FIGURE 25-10 The bell crank changes the contraction of the SMA for sideways movement of the lever. The spring enables the bell crank to return to its original position after the current is removed from the wire.
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store will stock a full variety of bell cranks, levers, pulleys, wheels, gears, springs, and other odds and ends to make your work with SMA more enjoyable.
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25.4.4 DESIGNING ROBOTS FOR SMA LIMITATIONS
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The operation of shape-memory alloys probably seems like they are the perfect material to simulate the operation of muscles, eliminating the need for motors, hydraulics, and pneumatics in many robots. Before you get visions of building robots that can walk or manipulate objects like humans do, there are a few caveats about SMAs that you should be aware of. First off, SMAs contract relatively slowly when current is applied and can take a very long time to cool and relax when current is turned off. Coupled with this is the all-or-nothing behavior of SMAs; they are either fully contracted or fully relaxed. It may be possible to specify an amount of contraction, but this would require closed loop control of a power PWM applied to the current and would be difficult to design. These two issues can compound each other, resulting in a robot part that is slow to respond and when it does it goes too far. SMAs require a disproportionate amount of power when compared to electric motors or R/C servos. Along with this extra power, they cannot provide as much force as an electric motor or servo and when they are used in a robot, you will find that they cannot carry batteries. Any robot you design with SMAs will have a tether wire running to it. Finally, SMAs are surprisingly difficult to work with. The ideal method of attaching them to structures is to use a crimped or flattened tube, as discussed previously with the SMA being held under light tension when crimping the attachment tube. You will find your first attempts at working with SMA to not work very well, but over time, you will gain the knack and will find that you can work with SMA quickly and efficiently. These issues will make SMAs seem a lot less attractive than what you might have thought before you read this section, but by keeping these concerns in the back of your mind you can create prototype robots quickly and efficiently. Chances are you had some plans for a very special robot that could take advantage of the different properties of SMAs and you still can, but recognize that your SMA-based robot will have to be built very lightly and probably smaller than the final robot that you want to build. This is actually the advantage of SMA; it can be used to create prototype robot structures quickly and efficiently. Along with allowing you to create prototype structures in just a few moments, its slow operation will allow you to observe the action of the mechanical system and learn what is the correct way to sequence it.
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