vb.net barcode reader from image REACHING OUT WITH ROBOT ARMS in Software

Creator QR Code in Software REACHING OUT WITH ROBOT ARMS

REACHING OUT WITH ROBOT ARMS
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FIGURE 26-5 One of the many available sizes and styles of pneumatic cylinders. This one has a bore of about 1 2 in and a stroke of three in.
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26.4 From Here
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To learn more about . . . Building a robotic revolute coordinate arm Creating hands for robot arms Endowing robot arms and hands with the sense of touch Read 27, Build a Revolute Coordinate Arm 28, Experimenting with Gripper Designs 29, The Sense of Touch
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CHAPTER
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BUILDING A REVOLUTE COORDINATE ARM
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he revolute coordinate arm design provides a great deal of flexibility, yet requires few components. The arm described in this chapter enjoys only two degrees of freedom. You ll find, however, that even with two degrees of freedom, the arm can do many things. It can be used by itself as a stationary pick-and-place robot, or it can be attached to a mobile platform. The construction details given here are for a left hand; to build a right hand, simply make it a mirror image of the left. You can use just about any type of gripper with this arm. In Fig. 27-1, the completed arm is shown with a simple gripper built on it. You can design the forearm so it accepts many different grippers interchangeably. See 27, Experimenting with Gripper Designs, for more information on robot hands.
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27.1 Design Overview
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The design of the revolute coordinate arm is modeled after the human arm. A shaft-mounted shoulder joint provides shoulder rotation (degree of freedom #1). A simple swing-arm rotating joint provides the elbow flexion (degree of freedom #2). You could add a third degree of freedom shoulder flexion by providing another joint immediately after the shoulder. Tests have proved that this basic two-degree-of-freedom arm is quite sufficient for most tasks. It is best used, however, on a mobile platform where the
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Copyright 2006, 2001, 1987 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.
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BUILDING A REVOLUTE COORDINATE ARM
FIGURE 27-1 The completed arm, with gripper (hand) attached.
robot can move closer to or farther away from the object it s grasping. That s cheating, in a way, but it s a lot simpler than adding another joint.
27.2 Shoulder Joint and Upper Arm
The shoulder joint is a shaft that connects to a bearing mounted on the arm base or in the robot. Attached to the shaft is the drive motor for moving the shoulder up and down. The motor is connected by a single-stage gear system, as shown in Fig. 27-2 (refer to the parts list in Table 27-1). In the prototype arm for this book, the output of the motor was approximately 22 r/min, or roughly one-third of a revolution per second. For a shoulder joint, 22 r/min is a little on the fast side. A gear ratio of 3:1 was chosen to decrease the speed by a factor of three (and increase the torque of the motor roughly by a factor of three). With the gear system, the shoulder joint moves at about one revolution every 8 s. That may seem slow, but remember that the shoulder joint swings in an arc of a little less than 50 , or roughly one-seventh of a complete circle. Thus, the shoulder will go from one extreme to the other in under 2 s. The upper arm is constructed from a 10-in length of 57 64-by-9 16-by-1 16-in aluminum channel stock and a matching 10-in length of 41 64-by-1 2-by-1 16-in aluminum channel stock (Fig. 27-3). Sandwich the two stocks together to make a bar. Drill a 1 4-in hole 1 2 in from the end
27.2 SHOULDER JOINT AND UPPER ARM
Spur Gears (3:1 Reduction)
Shoulder Motor
Shoulder (1/4"-20 All-Thread Rod)
FIGURE 27-2 The gear transfer system used to actuate the shoulder of the revolute arm. You can also use a motor with a built-in reduction gear if the output of the motor is not slow enough for the arm.
of the channel stock pieces. Cut a piece of 1 4-in 20 all-thread rod to a length of 7 in (this measurement depends largely on the shoulder motor arrangement, but 7 in gives you room to make changes). Thread a 1 4-in 20 nut, flat washer, and locking washer onto one end of the rod. Leave a little extra about 1 8 to 1 4 in on the outside of the nut. You ll need the room in a bit.
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