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27.5 POSITION CONTROL
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The forearm is also out of balance, and you can correct it in a similar manner, by attaching the shoulder joint nearer to the center of the arm. This has the unfortunate side effect, however, of shortening the reach of the forearm. One solution is to make the arm longer to compensate. In effect, you ll be keeping the elbow joint where it is, just adding extra length behind it. This may interfere with the operation of the arm or robot, however, so you may want to opt for counterweights attached to the end of the arm. For the prototype arm, two 4-oz fishing tackle weights were attached to the arm with a 2-by-3 4-in corner angle bracket (see Fig. 27-8).
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27.5 Position Control
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The stepper motors used for the shoulder and elbow joints of the prototype provide a natural control over the position of the arm. Under electronic control, the motors can be commanded to rotate a specific number of steps, which in turn moves the upper arm and forearm a specified amount. You should supplement the open-loop servo system with limit switches. These switches provide an indication when the arm joints have moved to their extreme positions. The most common limit switches are small leaf switches. You can also construct optical switches using photo-interrupters. A small patch of plastic or metal interrupts the flow of light between an LED and phototransistor, thus signaling the limit of movement. You can build these interrupters by mounting an infrared LED and phototransistor on a small perforated board, or you can purchase ready-made modules (they are common surplus finds). Using an IR LED and phototransistor is actually a simplified version of the limit switches discussed in 20. When using continuous DC motors, you need to provide some type of feedback to report the position of the arm. Otherwise, the control electronics (almost always a computer) will never know where the arm is or how far it has moved. There are several ways you can provide this feedback. The most popular methods are a potentiometer and an incremental shaft encoder.
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27.5.1 POTENTIOMETER
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Attach the shaft of a potentiometer to the shoulder or elbow joint or motor (see Fig. 27-9), and the varying resistance of the pot serves as an indication of the position of the arm. Just about any pot will do, as long as it has a travel rotation the same as or greater than the travel rotation of the joints in the arm. Otherwise, the arm will go past the internal stops of the potentiometer. Travel rotation is usually not a problem in arm systems, where joints seldom move more than 40 or 50 . If your arm design moves more than about 270 , use a multiturn pot. A three-turn pot should suffice. Another method is to use a slider-pot. You operate a slider-pot by moving the wiper up and down, rather than by turning a shaft. Slider-pots are ideal when you want to measure linear distance, like the amount of travel (distance) of a chain or belt. Fig. 27-10 shows a slider-pot mounted to a cleat in the timing belt used to operate the elbow joint.
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FIGURE 27-9 Using a potentiometer as a position feedback device. Mount the potentiometer on a drive motor or on a joint of the arm.
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27.5.2 INCREMENTAL SHAFT ENCODER
The incremental shaft encoder was first introduced in 20, Working with DC Motors. The shaft encoder is a disc that has many small holes or slots near its outside circumference. You attach the disc to a motor shaft or the shoulder or elbow joint. The shaft encoder circuit is typically composed of a circuit connected to the phototransistor (the latter of which is baffled to block off ambient light). The phototransistor counts the number of on/off flashes and then converts that number into distance traveled. For example, one on/off flash may equal a 2 movement of the joint. Two flashes may equal a 4 movement, and so forth.
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