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29.5 EXPERIMENTING WITH PIEZOELECTRIC TOUCH SENSORS
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FIGURE 29-10 a. The basic wiring diagram for converting pressure data into digital data, using an ADC0808 analog-to-digital converter (ADC) IC. You can connect up to eight pressure sensors to the one chip. b. How to interface a conductive foam sensor to the ADC0808 chip.
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29.5 Experimenting with Piezoelectric Touch Sensors
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A new form of electricity was discovered just a little more than a century ago when the two scientists Pierre and Jacques Curie placed a weight on a certain crystal. The strain on the crystal produced an odd form of electricity significant amounts of it, in fact. The Curie brothers coined this new electricity piezoelectricity; piezo is derived from the Greek word meaning press. Later, the Curies discovered that the piezoelectric crystals used in their experiments underwent a physical transformation when voltage was applied to them. They also found that the piezoelectric phenomenon is a two-way street. Press the crystals and out comes a voltage; apply a voltage to the crystals and they respond by flexing and contracting.
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THE SENSE OF TOUCH
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All piezoelectric materials share a common molecular structure, in which all the movable electric dipoles (positive and negative ions) are oriented in one specific direction. Piezoelectricity occurs naturally in crystals that are highly symmetrical quartz, Rochelle salt crystals, and tourmaline, for example. The alignment of electric dipoles in a crystal structure is similar to the alignment of magnetic dipoles in a magnetic material. When an electrical voltage is applied to the piezoelectric material, the physical distances between the molecular dipoles change. This causes the material to contract in one dimension (or axis) and expand in the other. Conversely, placing the piezoelectric material under pressure (in a vise, for example) compresses the dipoles in one more axis. This causes the material to produce a voltage. While natural crystals were the first piezoelectric materials used, synthetic materials have been developed that greatly demonstrate the piezo effect. A common human-made piezoelectric material is ferroelectric zirconium titanate ceramic, which is often found in piezo buzzers used in smoke alarms, wristwatches, and security systems. The zirconium titanate is evenly deposited on a metal disc. Electrical signals, applied through wires bonded to the surfaces of the disc and ceramic, cause the piezo material to vibrate at high frequencies (usually 4 kHz and above). Piezo activity is not confined to brittle ceramics. PVDF, or polyvinylidene fluoride (used to make high-temperature PVDF plastic water pipes), is a semicrystalline polymer that lends itself to unusual piezoelectric applications. The plastic is pressed into thin, clear sheets and is given precise piezo properties during manufacture by among other things stretching the sheets and exposing them to intense electrical fields. PVDF piezo film is currently used in many commercial products, including noninductive guitar pickups, microphones, even solid-state fans for computers and other electrical equipment. One PVDF film you can obtain and experiment with is Kynar, available directly from the manufacturer (see Measurement Specialists at www.msiusa.com for more information). Whether you are experimenting with ceramic or flexible PVDF film, it s important to understand a few basic concepts about piezoelectric materials:
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Piezoelectric materials are voltage sensitive. The higher the voltage is, the more the piezoelectric material changes. Apply 1 V to a ceramic disc and crystal movement will be slight. Apply 100 V and the movement will be much greater. Piezoelectric materials act as capacitors. Piezo materials develop and retain an electrical charge. Piezoelectric materials are bipolar. Apply a positive voltage and the material expands in one axis. Apply a negative voltage and the material contracts in that axis.
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29.5.1 EXPERIMENTING WITH CERAMIC DISCS
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The ubiquitous ceramic disc is perhaps the easiest form of piezoelectric transducer to experiment with. A sample disc is shown in Fig. 29-11. The disc is made of nonferrous metal, and the ceramic-based piezo material is applied to one side. Most discs available for purchase have two leads already attached. The black lead is the ground of the disc and is directly attached to the metal itself.
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