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30.2.7 USING THE FOCUSING LENS
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PIR sensors work by detecting electromagnetic radiation in the infrared region, especially about 5 to 15 micrometers (5000 to 15,000 nanometers). Infrared radiation in this part of the spectrum can be focused using optics for visible light. While you can use a PIR device without focusing, you ll find range and sensitivity are greatly enhanced when you use a lens. Most motion detectors use either a specially designed Fresnel lens to focus infrared radiation or a motion detection lens, which causes the amount of light falling on the detector to change with movement. The Fresnel lens is a piece of plastic with grooves, and is made to gather more light at the top than at the bottom. With this geometry, when the sensor is mounted high and pointing down the motion detector is more sensitive to movement farther away than right underneath. The motion detection lens consists of a series of flat sections, which focus light from different areas when a person moves, the amount of light reaching the detector changes, resulting in a changing signal.
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FIGURE 30-13 A hacked PIR detector, showing the DC-operated circuit board.
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If you ve gotten your PIR sensor by hacking a motion detector, you can use the same lens for your robot. You may wish to invert the lens from its usual orientation (because your robot will likely be near the ground, looking up). Or, you can substitute an ordinary positive diopter lens and mount it in front of the PIR sensor. 32, Robot Vision, has more information on the use and proper mounting of lenses. Note that, oddly enough, plastic lenses are probably a better choice than glass lenses. Several kinds of glass actively absorb infrared radiation, as do optical coatings applied to finer quality lenses. You may need to experiment with the lens material you use or else obtain a specialty lens designed for use with PIR devices.
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30.2.8 ULTRASONIC SOUND
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Like light, sound has a tendency to travel in straight lines and bounce off any object in its path. You can use sound waves for many of the same things that light can be used for, including detecting objects. High-frequency sound beyond human hearing (ultrasonic) can be used to detect both proximity to objects as well as distance. In operation, ultrasonic sound is transmitted from a transducer, reflected by a nearby object, then received by another transducer. The advantage of using sound is that it is not sensitive to objects of different color and light-reflective properties. Keep in mind, however, that some materials reflect sound better than others and that some even absorb sound completely.
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30.2 NONCONTACT NEAR-OBJECT DETECTION
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This system is adaptable for use with either a single transmitter/receiver pair or multiple pairs. Ultrasonic transmitter and receiver transducers are common finds in the surplus market and even when new cost under $5 each (depending on make and model). Ultrasonic transducers are available from a number of retail and surplus outlets; see Appendix B, Sources, for a more complete list of electronics suppliers. You can also mount a single pair of transducers on a scanning platform (also called a turret or carousel), as shown in Fig. 30-14. The scanner can be operated using a standard RC servo (see 22, Working with Servo Motors, for more information). Figs. 30-15 and 30-16 show a basic circuit you can build that provides ultrasonic proximity detection and has two parts: a transmitter and a receiver (refer to the parts list in Tables 36-2 and 36-3). The transmitter circuit works as follows: a stream of 40 kHz pulses are produced by a 555 timer wired up as an astable multivibrator. The receiving transducer is positioned two or more inches away from the transmitter transducer. For best results, you may wish to place a piece of foam between the two transducers to eliminate direct interference. The signal from the receiving transducer needs to be amplified; an op amp (such as an LM741, as shown in Fig. 30-16) is more than sufficient for the job. The amplified output of the receiver transducer is directly connected to another 741 op amp wired as a comparator. The ultrasonic receiver is sensitive only to sounds in about the 40 kHz range ( about 4 kHz).
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