vb.net barcode reader from image CONTACT DETECTION in Software

Creating QR Code in Software CONTACT DETECTION

30.3 CONTACT DETECTION
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Left Whisker
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Right Whisker
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FIGURE 30-19 Adding whiskers to a robot. a. Whiskers attached to the dome of the Minibot (see Chap. 8); b. construction detail of the whiskers and actuation switches.
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The short whiskers are cut to represent the width of the robot. Should the short whiskers on only one side of the robot be triggered, then the robot will turn the opposite direction to avoid the obstacle. If both sides of short whiskers are activated, then the robot knows that it cannot fit through the passageway, and it either stops or turns around. Before building bumper switches or whiskers into your robot, be aware that most electronic circuits will misbehave when they are triggered by a mechanical switch contact. The contact has a tendency to bounce as it closes and opens, so it needs to be conditioned. See the debouncing circuits in 29 for ways to clean up the contact closure so switches can directly drive your robot circuits.
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30.3.3 SPRING WHISKERS
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You can make a very inexpensive and simple whisker sensor for your robots using an old spring and a piece of thick solid core wire as shown in Fig. 30-20. The whisker consists of
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OBJECT DETECTION
a spring that has been pulled apart and the two ends straightened with one end being several inches long and acting as the whisker. Instead of using the straightened spring wire for the whisker, a piece of narrow plastic tubing can be used. The other end of the spring is simply soldered to the mounting PCB. Running through the center of the spring is a piece of bared, solid core (20 gauge is good for this application) that does not touch the spring unless there is a force against the whisker (straightened spring end), in which case, the two pieces of metal form a contact. Ideally, the center contact wire should be a pulled up connection to the robot controller while the spring and its integral whisker is connected to the robot s ground. This wiring arrangement minimizes the chance that static electricity can form on the whisker and cause damage to the robot s controller when it comes into contact with the center wire.
30.3.4 PRESSURE PAD
In 29 you learned how to give the sense of touch to robot fingers and grippers. One of the materials used as a touch sensor was conductive foam, which is packaged with most CMOS and microprocessor ICs. This foam is available in large sheets and is perfect for use as collision detection pressure pads. Radio Shack sells a nice 5-in square pad that s ideal for the job. Attach wires to the pad as described in 29, and glue the pad to the frame or skin of your robot. Unlike fingertip touch, where the amount of pressure is important, the salient ingredient with a collision detector is that contact has been made with something. This makes the interface electronics that much easier to build. Fig. 30-21 shows a suitable interface for use with the pad (refer to the parts list in Table 30-5). The pad is placed in series with a 3.3K resistor between ground and the positive supply voltage to form a voltage divider. When the pad is pressed down, the voltage at the output of the sensor will vary. The output of the sensor, which is the point between the pad
Pulled and Straightened Spring
Center Contact Wire
Force on Spring
Spring Making Contact with Center Wire
FIGURE 30-20 Spring whisker shown soldered to a PCB with a 20-gauge solid core wire running up through the center. When the whisker has a force applied to it, the spring comes into contact with the center wire.
30.3 CONTACT DETECTION
Pressure Sensor
RA 5 R1 3.3K R3 10K 4
R3 10K Output
IC1 339 (1/4) 12
FIGURE 30-21 Converting the output of a conductive foam pressure sensor to an on/off type switch output.
and resistor, is applied to the inverting pin of a 339 comparator. (There are four separate comparators in the 339 package, so one chip can service four pressure pads.) When the voltage from the pad exceeds the reference voltage supplied to the comparator, the comparator changes states, thus indicating a collision. The comparator output can be used to drive a motor direction control relay or can be tied directly to a microprocessor or computer port. Follow the interface guidelines provided in 14.
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