vb.net barcode reader from image MULTIPLE BUMPER SWITCHES in Software

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30.3.5 MULTIPLE BUMPER SWITCHES
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What happens when you have many switches or proximity devices scattered around the periphery of your robot You could connect the output of each switch to the computer, but that s a waste of interface ports. A better way is to use a priority encoder or multiplexer. Both schemes allow you to connect several switches to a common control circuit. The robot s microprocessor or computer queries the control circuit instead of the individual switches or proximity devices. Using a Priority Encoder The circuit in Fig. 30-22 uses a 74148 priority encoder IC. Switches are shown at the inputs of the chip. When a switch is closed, its binary equivalent
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TABLE 30-5 IC1 R1 R2 R3 Misc.
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Parts List for Pressure Sensor Bumper Switch LM339 quad comparator IC 3.3K resistor 10K potentiometer 10K resistor Conductive foam pressure transducer (see text)
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+5vdc
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R1 thru R8 all 1K S1 thru S8 4 3 2 1 13 12 11 10 EI 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 SWITCH 1 2 3 4 X C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 X X X O 0 C C 0 0 0 C 0 0 0 C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 X C 0 0 0 C 0 0 0 6 X C 0 0 0 0 C 0 0 7 X C 0 0 0 0 0 C 0 8 X C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 OUTPUT A B C 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 Truth Table--74148 priority encoder
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74148 B
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INPUTS 14 GROUP SIGNAL ENABLE OUTPUT 15
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Goes HIGH when a switch is closed Goes LOW when a switch is closed
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5 ENABLE INPUT
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FIGURE 30-22 Multiple switch detection using the 74148 priority encoder IC.
30.3 CONTACT DETECTION
appears at the A-B-C output pins. With a priority encoder, only the highest value switch is indicated at the output. In other words, if switches 4 and 7 are both closed, the output will only reflect the closure of pin 4. Another method is shown in Fig. 30-23. Here, a 74150 multiplexer IC is used as a switch selector. To read whether a switch is or not, the computer or microprocessor applies a binary weighted number to the input select pins. The state of the desired input is shown in inverted form at the Out pin (pin 10). The advantage of the 74150 is that the state of any switch can be read at any time, even if several switches are closed. Using a Resistor Ladder If the computer or microcontroller used in your robot has an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) or you don t mind adding one, you can use another technique for interfacing multiple switches: the resistor ladder. The concept is simple, as Fig. 30-24 shows. Each switch is connected to ground on one side and to positive voltage in series with a resistor on the other side. Multiple switches are connected in parallel to an ADC input, as depicted in the figure. The resistors form a voltage divider. Each resistor has a different value, so when a switch closes the voltage through that switch is uniquely different. Note that because the resistors are in parallel, you can close more than one switch at one time. An in-between voltage will result. Feel free to experiment with the values of the resistors connected to each switch to obtain maximum flexibility.
+5VDC
S1-S16 Bumper Switches
24 8 7 0 1 15 14 13 11 Input select OUT 10 Output
6 2 5 3 4 4 3 5 2 6 1 7 23 8 22 9 21 10 20 11 19 12 18 13 17 14 16 15
A B C D IC1 74150
ENABLE GND 12
R1-R16 1.2K
FIGURE 30-23 Multiple switch detection using a 74150 multiplexer IC.
OBJECT DETECTION
FIGURE 30-24 A resistor ladder provides a variable voltage; the voltage at the output of the ladder is dependent on the switch(es) that are closed.
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