SOUND INPUT AND OUTPUT
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FIGURE 31-5 A warbler siren made from two 555 timer ICs.
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31.3 Sirens and Other Warning Sounds
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If you use your robot as a security device or to detect intruders, fire, water, or whatever, then you probably want the machine to warn you of immediate or impending danger. The warbling siren shown in Fig. 31-5 will do the trick, assuming it s connected to a strong enough amplifier (refer to the parts list in Table 31-3). The circuit is constructed using two 555 timer chips (alternatively, you can combine the functions into the 556 dual timer chip). To change the speed and pitch of the siren, alter the values or R1 and R4, respectively. For maximum effectiveness, connect the output of the IC2 to a high-powered amplifier. You can get audio amplifiers with wattages of 8, 16, and more in easy-to-build kit
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TABLE 31-3 IC1, IC2 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 C1 C2
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Parts List for Siren 555 timer IC 10K resistor 1 M 10K resistor 1K resistor 4.7K resistor 0.22 F ceramic capacitor 0.1 F ceramic capacitor
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31.4 SOUND CONTROL
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form. See Appendix B, Sources, for a list of mail-order companies that also sell electronic kits.
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31.4 Sound Control
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Unless you have all of the sound-making circuits in your robot hooked up to separate amplifiers and speakers (not a good idea), you ll need a way to select between the sounds. The circuit in Fig. 31-6 uses a 4051 CMOS analog switch and lets you choose from among eight different analog signal sources. You select input by providing a three-bit binary word to the select lines. You can load the selection via computer or set it manually with a switch. A binary-coded-decimal (BCD) thumbwheel switch is a good choice, or you can use a four-bank DIP switch. Table 31-4 is the truth table for selecting any of the eight inputs. You can route just about any of your sound projects through this chip, just as long as the outlet level doesn t exceed a few milliwatts. Do not pass amplified sound through the chip. Besides in all likelihood destroying the chip, it ll cause excessive cross-talk between the channels. It s also important that each input signal not have a voltage swing that exceeds the supply voltage to the 4051.
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+5 16 13 0 14 1 15 2 13 3 Audio Inputs 1 5 4 5 IC1 4051 A 11 Input Select
B 10 C 9
2 6 4 7 7 -5 GND 8 INH 6
FIGURE 31-6 How to use the 4051 CMOS eight-input analog switch to control the output of the various sound-making circuits in your robot. You can choose the sound source you want routed to the output amplifier by selecting its input with the Input Select lines (they are binary weighted: A = 1, V = 2, C = 4). For best results, the audio inputs should not already be amplified.
SOUND INPUT AND OUTPUT
TABLE 31-4 C 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
4051 Truth Table B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 A 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Selected Output 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Input Pin 13 14 15 12 1 5 2 4
31.5 Audio Amplifiers
Fig. 31-7 (parts list in Table 31-5) shows a rather straightforward 0.5-W sound amplifier that uses the LM386 integrated amplifier. The sound output is minimal, but the chip is easy to get, cheap, and can be wired up quickly. It s perfect for experimenting with sound projects. The amplifier as shown has a gain of approximately 20, using minimal parts. You can increase the gain to about 200 by making a few wiring changes, as shown in Fig. 31-8 (parts list in Table 31-6). Either amplifier will drive a small (2- or 3-in) 8- speaker.
Input 6 R3 10K 3 + 8 1 IC1 LM386 2 4 R1 10 SPKR 1 8 5 7 C2 250 F + C1 0.047
FIGURE 31-7 A simple gain-of-50 integrated amplifier, based on the popular LM386 audio amplifier IC.
31.5 AUDIO AMPLIFIERS
TABLE 31-5 IC1 R1 R2 C1 C2 SPKR1
Parts List for GAIN-200 Audio Amplifier LM386 audio amplifier IC 10 resistor 10K potentiometer 0.047 F ceramic capacitor 250 F electrolytic capacitor 8- miniature speaker
FIGURE 31-8 A simple gain-of-200 integrated amplifier.
TABLE 31-6 IC1 R1 R2 C1 C2 C3 C4 SPKR1
Parts List for GAIN-of-200 Audio Amplifier LM386 audio amplifier IC 10 resistor 10K potentiometer 100 F electrolytic capacitor 0.047 F ceramic capacitor 10 F electrolytic capacitor 250 F electrolytic capacitor 8- miniature speaker
SOUND INPUT AND OUTPUT
31.6 Speech Recognition
Robots that listen to your voice commands and obey The technology is not only available, it s relatively inexpensive. Several companies, such as Sensory Inc. and Images Company, offer full-featured speech recognition systems for under $100. Both require you to train the system to recognize your voice patterns. Once trained, you simply repeat the command, and the system sets one or more of its outputs accordingly. The Voice Direct, from Sensory Inc., is relatively easy to set up and use. The unit consists of a small double-sided circuit board that is ready to be connected to a microphone, speaker (for auditory confirmation), battery, and either relays or a microcontroller. The Voice Direct board recognizes up to 15 words or phrases and is said to have a 99 percent or better recognition accuracy. Phrases of up to 3.2 s can be stored, so you can tell your robot to come here or stop, don t do that! Fig. 31-9 shows a Voice Direct module; the product comes with complete circuit and connection diagrams. Keep the following in mind when using a voice recognition system:
You must be reasonably close to the microphone for the system to accurately understand your commands. The better the quality of the microphone you have, the better the accuracy of the speech recognition.