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31.8 SOUND INPUT SENSORS
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4 From Amplifier in Fig. 31-10 (pin 6, omit R4, R5 and Q1) 8 IC1 C3 2.2 F + 1 567 5 R1 5K 6 Decoded Output
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FIGURE 31-12 A 567 tone decoder IC, wired to detect tones at about 1 kHz.
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SOUND INPUT AND OUTPUT
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TABLE 31-8 IC1 R1 R2 C1 C2 C3, C4
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Parts List for Tone Decoder 567 tone decoder IC 50K 3- to 15-turn precision potentiometer 2.2K resistor 0.1 F ceramic capacitor 2.2 F tantalum or electrolytic capacitor 1.0 F tantalum or electrolytic capacitor
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31.8.4 BUILDING A SOUND SOURCE
With the 567 decoder, you ll be able to control your robot using specific tones. With a tone generator, you ll be able to make those tones so you can signal your robot via simple sounds. Such a tone-generator sound source is shown in Fig. 31-13 (the parts list is Table 31-9). The values shown in the circuit generate sounds in the 48-kHz to 144-Hz range. To extend the range higher or lower, substitute a higher or lower value for C1. Basic design formulas and tables for the 555 are provided in the appendices. For frequencies between about 5 and 15 kHz, use a piezoelectric element as the sound source. Use a miniature speaker for frequencies under 5 kHz and an ultrasonic transducer for frequencies over 30 kHz. Cram all the components in a small box, stick a battery inside,
FIGURE 31-13 A variable frequency tone generator, built around the common 555 timer IC. The tone output spans the range of human hearing and beyond.
31.9 FROM HERE
TABLE 31-9 IC1 R1 R2 C1 C2 SPKR1
Parts List for Tone Generator 555 timer IC 1 M potentiometer 1K resistor 0.001 F ceramic capacitor 0.1 F ceramic capacitor 4 or 8 miniature speaker
and push the button to emit the tone. Be aware that the sound level from the speaker and especially the piezoelectric element can be quite high. Do not operate the tone generator close to your ears or anyone else s ears except your robot s. Do not limit yourself to only using a 555 control. As discussed previously, a microcontroller can output specific frequencies very accurately. Some microcontrollers, such as the BS2, can be used to output telephone DTMF tones, which will give you up to 16 different commands for your robot along with the basic 12 that are on your telephone s keypad, there are four additional tone combinations available.
31.9 From Here
To learn more about . . . Computer and microcontroller options for robotics Interfacing sound inputs/outputs to a computer Sensors to prevent your robot from bumping into things Eyes to go along with the ears of your robot Read 12, An Overview of Robot Brains 14, Computer Peripherals 30, Object Detection 32, Robot Vision
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CHAPTER
ROBOT VISION
obotic vision systems can be simple or complex to match your specific requirements and your itch to tinker. Rudimentary Cyclops vision systems are used to detect nothing more than the presence or absence of light. Aside from this rather mundane task, there are plenty of useful applications for an on/off light detector. More advanced vision systems decode relative intensities of light and can even make out patterns and crude shapes. While the hardware for making robot eyes is rather simple, using the vision information they generate is not. Except for the one-cell light detector, vision systems must be interfaced to a computer to be useful. You can adapt the designs presented in this chapter to just about any computer using a microprocessor data bus or one or more parallel printer ports.
32.1 Simple Sensors for Vision
A number of simple electronic devices can be used as eyes for your robot. These include the following:
Photoresistors. These are typically a cadmium-sulfide (CdS) cell (often referred to simply as a photocell). A CdS cell acts like a light-dependent resistor (also referred to as an LDR): the resistance of the cell varies depending on the intensity of the light striking it. When no light strikes the cell, the device exhibits very high resistance, typically in the high 100 kilohms, or even megohms. Light reduces the resistance, usually significantly
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